12th century

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The 12th century began on January 1, 1101 and ended on 31 December 1200. Was the period of the European Middle Ages in Europe.


  • Beginning of the century for the first time in Germany annexed the name family name.
  • On the basis of trade and craft guilds and the bourgeoisie developed arise.
  • From France, the Knights' Tournament widespread than knightly combat game.
  • Cities and coat of arms seal on dive.
  • The architectural style of Gothic architecture originated in France. Here, the construction of the Cathedral of Saint- Denis to be an important milestone is seen.
  • In European music, the first polyphonic writing fixed compositions arise. The development reached at the end of the century in the Notre- Dame school its first peak
  • Through systematic translation of books from Arabic into Latin, the basis for the scientific and intellectual advancement of Europe is created. At the same time differs with the blossoming of cities in Central Europe, the village boundedness of the population.
  • The Western Church begins to introduce the Inquisition, the 1235 by Pope Gregory IX. will be officially used.
  • The Arabs take over from the Indians, the Indian figures, which are revolutionary with their value system.
  • In Imperial China, a general popular font developed.
  • Towards the end of the century the empire of the Toltecs is destroyed by the Chichimeca Indians in Central America.





  • Albertus Magnus, German scholar
  • Arnold of Brescia, the Italian freedom fighter and reformer
  • Bernard of Clairvaux, French crusade preacher
  • Dominic, Spanish poet
  • Francis, Italian itinerant preacher
  • Frederick Barbarossa, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
  • Gerard of Cremona, Italian scholar
  • Henry the Lion, German prince
  • Henry VI. , German Emperor
  • Hermann von Salza, German statesman
  • Hildegard of Bingen, German mystic
  • Ibn Rushd ( Averroes ), Arabian philosopher and scientist in Spain
  • Innocent III. , Italian Pope
  • Lothar von Supplinburg, the last German Emperor from Saxon House
  • Moshe ben Maimon ( Maimonides ), Jewish philosopher, lawyer and doctor
  • Peter Valdes, French freedom fighter and reformer
  • Peter Abelard, French philosopher and scholastic
  • Richard the Lionheart, King of England
  • Roger II, King of Sicily and Southern Italy
  • Snorri Sturluson, Icelandic historian, statesman and poet
  • Thomas Becket, English priest and statesman
  • Wace, French poet and historian
  • Walther von der Vogelweide, German poet and historian

Inventions and Discoveries

  • 1110 spreads in Central Europe, the coal industry
  • Around 1130 is in Imperial China invented gunpowder from saltpetre ( other sources indicate that gunpowder was in China as early as the year 1000 known)
  • Around 1130 the production of alcohol is known by distillation in Europe
  • Around 1180 the first submerged the windmill in Europe