Amun (also Amon, Amoun, Ammon, Amen or rare Imenand ) is the wind and fertility god of the ancient Egyptian religion. Amun is not to be confused with ameni, an epithet of Re.
Amun is attested since the Old Kingdom, together with Amaunet: Amun and Amaunet protect their gods with their shadow. He rose in the 11th Dynasty to the local deity of Thebes. After the family of Hermonthen had decided the Civil War of the First Intermediate for themselves, they tried to procure a sufficient legitimacy Thebes.
At the beginning of the 12th Dynasty, the new capital of Thebes was moved to the north. Sesostris I. advanced after installation of Thebes erected there the temple of Amun.
Amun was depicted in the pre- Amarna period than normal human form with crown and wand. In the post - Amarna period, with blue tint and double feather crown from two upright peacock feathers.
The blue skin is meant to symbolize the air and the creation. The people worshiped him in his original version rather than Aries, god of flocks and pastures and their fertility.
Reclining on raised platforms lined ram- for example, at Karnak the way to the temple. Sometimes he was depicted in human form with a ram's head.
Daily ritual sacrifice
In Karnak subsequent daily sacrifice ritual was for Amun during the New Kingdom completed:
In Thebes was also worshiped as the wife of Amun, the local goddess Mut and the son of the pair, the bird-headed moon-god Khonsu.
Importance to other nations
The Greeks identified with Zeus Amun, later the Romans with Jupiter. Thus the Amun cult has been preserved for some time even after the decline of the Egyptian Empire.
Amun in Nubia
Amun was one of the most important gods in Nubia. Its original form was the Nubian a ram. A ram- faceted solar deity can be demonstrated already for the Nubia of preliterate Kerma culture. The Aries shape was then taken over by the Egyptians after the conquest of Nubia. In later times, Amun said in the Meroitic language, the language of Nubia, Amani. The name Amani was also found in numerous Nubian people names like Tanwetamani, Senkamanisken Anlamani, Arkamani, Amanitore Amanishakheto or Natakamani again. The Nubian Amun had many different manifestations, which can be identified by distinct identity crowns. Known forms are:
- Of Amun of Napata, also known as Armun of Jebel Barkal and chief god of the Napatan dynasty,
- Of Amun at Naga, who also wore the crown of Amun of Napata in Meroitic period,
- Of Amun at Kawa, whose epithet "Lion on the south " was, who was an old lion God and could occur in Meroitic time both as a ram or as a lion,
- The only time in Meroitic sparsely mentioned Amun at Meroë, which could be an old moon god,
- And also worshiped in Nubia Amun of Thebes, who was worshiped together with his companion courage and his son Khonsu in Napata.
In Greek mythology
Amun was a legendary king of Libya. He had Rhea, daughter of Uranus and sister of Cronus, to wife.
He later became his wife with Amaltheia unfaithful. The result was their son Bacchus, whom she had to escape the jealousy of Hera, and therefore is Nysa ( a mythical mountain ) brought him. Here the child was given the name Dio - Nysus ( Dionysus ) and was raised by nymphs. After his death, Amun was then included among the gods.