Hethum II, King of Armenia

Hethum II (Armenian Հեթում Բ, * 1266, † August 1307 ) was from 1289 to 1293, again from 1295 to 1296 and from 1299 to 1301 King of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. From 1301 to 1305 he was regent of the kingdom.

First reign

Hethum was a son of King Leon III. and Keran ( Kir Anna ), daughter of Prince Hethum of Lambron. He belonged to the dynasty of the Hethumiden. His grandfather was King Hethum I, who had in the 1240er years formed an alliance with the Mongol empire of the Ilkhanate. Hethum II married (after 1324 ) Helvis of Lusignan, the daughter of King Hugh III. of Cyprus.

Hethum II took over the government in 1289. 1292 attacked the Egyptian Mamluk Sultan al -Malik al - Ashraf Khalil, who had been a year earlier conquered the kingdom of Jerusalem, the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. After the conquest of Hromgla Hethum was forced Behesni, Marash and Tel Hamdoun give up. In 1293 he abdicated in favor of his brother Thoros III. from, and performed as a brother John in the Franciscan monastery of Mamistra.

Second reign

1295 asked Thoros Hethum the power to take over again in order to renew the alliance with the Mongol empire of the Ilkhanate. Hetum traveled in the spring of 1295 to Il- Khan Baidu, who had recently become successor to the late Il- Khans Gaichatu to do him reverence. This initiative was successful. 1296 won Hethum and Thoros another ally in the standing at the height of his power Byzantine Empire. They traveled to Constantinople Opel to Rita of Armenia, a sister of the two, with Michael IX. Palaiologos, married to the co-emperor Andronikos II. During her absence, her brother Sempad took over with the help of Constantine III. , Another brother, the power in the kingdom and let Hethum and Thoros capture on their return to Caesarea. They were taken to the fortress Partzerpert where Sempad Hethum was blinded by cauterization partially. 1298 Thoros was assassinated in Partzerpert; Constantine, however, turned against Sempad and freed Hethum. This took over in 1299 the power again after his eyesight had improved again.

Third reign and reign for Leon IV

In the summer of 1299 King Hethum II sent a message to Ghazan, the Mongol Il- Khan of Persia and asked for his support. Ghazan marched with his troops to Syria and sent embassies to the King of Cyprus and the leader of the Knights Templar, the Knights Hospitaller and the Teutonic Order. He urged them to jointly conduct with him an attack on the Mamluks in Syria. The first letter was sent on October 21, 1299 and the second in November. There is no evidence for a response.

The Mongols and their allies defeated the Mamluks at the Battle of Wadi al - Khazandar on 23 or 24th Dezember 1299th Armenian auxiliary contingents were instrumental in the victory of the Mongols. The Armenians got back some lost territories. In the decisive battle of Marj es- Suffer south of Damascus in 1303, however, the allies were, although the Mongols aufboten a mighty army of about 80,000 men, defeated by the Mamluks. Hethum had to flee the Mongol Il- Khan Ghazan from the battlefield to Mosul. This campaign is considered the last major Mongol invasion of Syria. Hethum left the crown Thoros ' 17- year-old son Leon IV. , He retired to a monastery, but retained the office of the Regent of Armenia.

When Ghazan died on 10 May 1304, the hopes of a rapid reconquest of the Holy Land were destroyed with the help of the Ilkhanate. 1304 continued the Mamelukes their attacks on Kilikian Armenia continues. They succeeded in all areas, which had acquired during the Mongol invasion of the Armenians to regain. 1305 led Hethum II and his nephew Leon Armenian army for a final victory over the Mamluk horsemen in the Battle of Baghras.

The Hethum II of 1307 consummated Union Sis with the papacy was not accepted by the population. In August 1307 Mongolian Emir Bilarghu Hethum II and IV Leon invited for talks Anazarba, and killed beide.Er thus continuing a plot against Hethum to which was aimed to prevent the aspirations, the Armenian Church with Rome combine.