- Indo-European languages Armenian
The Armenian language (Armenian: Հայերեն / Hajeren ) is a branch of Indo-European languages .
There are three forms of language Armenian:
The Armenian in the vocabulary has similarities to the Greek (many parallels in etymological roots), which is why a closer relationship within the Indo-European languages is assumed (see also Balkanindogermanisch ). The Armenian beside it also contains many loanwords from Iranian languages ( Parthian, Middle Persian, Persian).
Numbers of speakers
The total number of speakers is about 6.724 million, of which slightly more than 3.4 million live in Armenia ( 2001), 904 892 in Russia ( 2002), 248 929 in Georgia (2002 ) 234 600 in Lebanon ( 1986), 320,000 in Syria (1993 ), 170 800 in Iran (1993 ), almost 140,000 in the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (2002), 40,000 in Turkey ( 1980), 8,000 in Jordan ( 1971), 3,000 in Israel ( 1971), 60,000 in Iraq, 2,740 in Cyprus (1987 ), 222,000 in the U.S. ( 2005) and more speakers in the diaspora.
In Armenian there are seven or six vowels: a, i, Schwa, o, u and two e, between which apart in Neuarmenischen of a Präjotierung beginning of a word, there is no difference in pronunciation. It is not clear to what extent they differed in Old Armenian, presumably there was either an open and a closed or a long and a short e plosives and affricates are voiced, unvoiced or voiceless aspirated. In Armenian there is no glottal stops. German native speakers it can be difficult during the debate, they do not intuitively mitzusprechen.
There are 26 consonants in Old Armenian and six affricates, the ( ŋ ) are included in the Armenian alphabet except for the voiced velar nasal all. The f occurs only in foreign words, prepares the Armenians but no difficulty in pronouncing. Some dialects of Armenian own ejectives, which is atypical of Indo-European languages and is probably due to the influence of the surrounding languages. The emphasis is on the vast majority of words on the last syllable. The Phonology of Armenian was influenced by the neighboring Caucasian languages and the Turkish.
Western Armenian sound shift
By Western Armenian sound shift voiceless aspirated consonants are non- disappeared from the Western Armenian. Typical is the voiceless aspirated pronunciation formerly voiced non- aspirated sounds and voiced non -aspirated pronunciation formerly non- aspirated voiceless sounds. This applies to the following letter:
- Plosives բ ( [b ] to [ p ʰ ] ) and պ ( [ p] to [b ] )
- դ ( [ d] to [t ʰ ] ) and տ ( [ t] [ d])
- գ ( [g ] to [k ʰ ] ) and կ ( [k ] to [g ] )
- Affricates ջ ( [ dʒ ] to [ tʃ ʰ ] ) and ճ ( [ tʃ ] to [ dʒ ] )
- ձ ( [ DZ ] to [ ts ʰ ] ), ծ ( [TS ] to [ DZ ] ), and ց ( [ ts ʰ ] to [ DZ ] )
See also: International Phonetic Alphabet
Armenian has a rich case system ( seven cases, namely: nominative, accusative, locative, genitive, dative, ablative, instrumental ), but no gender distinction. Most of the old synthetic verb forms were replaced by analytical constructions ( with auxiliary verb ). Armenian is an SPO - language, that is, the word order is usually subject - predicate - object, but it is flexible, for example, a sentence to emphasize particularly. The subjunctive is only for the verbs in the present tense and past tense. However, its function is different in German, in principle, to use it not for the indirect speech. (Alternative categories are therefore opt ( request form) and Desiderativ ). The indefinite article is not grammatically marked in Ostarmenischen; in Western Armenian follows the noun a " mə '(- մը ), and " ə " ( - ը ) in Ostarmenischen.