Lhasa (Tibetan: ལྷ་ས་, Tib. lha sa, also Lasa, Chinese拉萨, Pinyin Lasa ) is the capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region of the People 's Republic of China.
It is located in a high mountain and was established at a temple. Even today, she has great religious importance and is home to many monks. A major attraction is the Potala Palace, the former palace of the Dalai Lama.
Since 2006, Lhasa is linked to the Chinese railway network. The majority of Tibetans inhabited city in the inner city district has a Chinese population share of about one third.
Lhasa is located in the Trans Himalayan Mountains. It lies about 3600 m above sea level in the valley of Lhasa He ( Tib. lha sa gtsang po), a tributary of the Yarlung Zangbo River. The city is located at the northern shore and extends today in east-west direction over more than 10 kilometers.
Administrative and ethnic breakdown of Lhasa
After 1950 the number of inhabitants and the area of Lhasa grew by leaps and bounds. Lived around 1950 only 20,000 to 25,000 people in the city, and this in an area of 3 km ² in front of the Potala Palace, plus 15,000 to 20,000 monks in the monasteries surrounding, so there are almost 475,000 people today. Almost half the population lives Lhasa ( Thrinkönchü ) in the district Chengguan. This district includes the urban area of Lhasa ( ie the actual city).
Administrative divisions of Lhasa
The administrative area of the city of Lhasa, consisting of the town of Chengguan District ( Thrinkönchü, "downtown" ) and seven counties, has a total area of 31,662 km ² and according to census (2000) 474 499 inhabitants ( population density: 14,99 inhabitants / km ²).
- City Chengguan District ( Tib: Khrin con chus, Thrinkönchü, "downtown", chines城关 区Chengguan Qū. )
- The circle Lhünzhub ( Tib: lhun grub rdzong, Lhundrub Dzong,林 周 县Linzhou Xiàn ), capital: greater community Ganqoin (甘 曲 镇),
- The circle Damxung ( Tib: ' dam gzhung rdzon, Damshung Dzong,当雄县Dangxiong Xiàn ), capital: community Gungthang (公 塘乡)
- The Nyemo ( Tib: sne mo rdzong, Nyemo Dzong,尼 木 县Nimu Xiàn ), capital: greater community Tarrong (塔 荣 镇),
- The circle Qüxü ( Tib: chu shur rdzong, Chushur Dzong,曲水县Qūshuǐ Xiàn ), capital: greater community Qüxü (曲 水镇)
- The circle Doilungdeqen ( Tib: stod ment bde chen rdzong, Toelung Dechen Dzong,堆 龙 德庆 县Duīlóngdéqìng Xiàn ), capital: greater community Donggar (东 嘎 镇),
- The circle Dagzê ( Tib: stag rtse rdzong, Tagtse Dzong,达孜县DAZI Xiàn ), capital: greater community Deqin (德庆 镇),
- The circle Maizhokunggar ( Tib. times greater supply dkar rdzong, Meldro Gungkar Dzong,墨竹 工 卡 县Mòzhúgōngkǎ Xiàn ), capital: greater community Gungkar (工 卡 镇).
Ethnic structure of the population
The total population of Lhasa ( city) amounted to 521 500 inhabitants in 2000. According to the census in November 2000, the ethnic distribution in the urban area of Lhasa as follows ( military personnel are excluded in this count ):
Ethnic groups throughout the city:
The town of Chengguan District ( " Downtown "城关 区) has an area of 523 km ² and, according to census of 2000 223 001 inhabitants; this means a population density of 426.39 inhabitants / km ². Ethnic groups in detail:
The story goes back to Lhasa in the 7th century. At that time, the Jokhang Temple, were still the religious center of the old city of Lhasa, the Ramoche temple and the palace of the first Tibetan King Srongtsen Gampo (reigned 620-649 ) on the red hills ( Tib: dmar -po ri ) founded. This stood where there is now the Potala Palace. Two located in the Potala chapels dedicated among others, the great Tibetan king line, are considered remnants of this palace. In the 15th century, the Buddhist Gelug school built with Sera, Drepung and Ganden monasteries three in the area of Lhasa. In the 17th century, the Potala Palace Ngawang Lobsang under Gyatsho, the fifth Dalai Lama, newly built on the "Red Hill", and also the Jokhang temple was enlarged.
In the first half of the 20th century made various western personalities travel to the city, including Francis Younghusband, Alexandra David- Néel, Heinrich Harrer and Peter Aufschnaiter.
Etymology of the name
The meaning of the name Lhasa is now usually indicated with Tibetan " Götterort ". In the time of the Yarlung Dynasty, this place was called (Tib. :) rva -sa, so a fenced pasture was meant. It is also possible to interpret "Goat Willow ". It also recalls the name of this place in today's Lhasa dialect. Here the name is with API ɬ ̄ɛ: S A pronounced, corresponding to the font Tibetan " Lhas sa". This in turn has the meaning " enclosed place" ( rva sa). Finally, it should also be noted that Tib: lha also the name for the considered divine kings of Tibet was so Lhasa was initially understood as a " place of kings" and has subsequently undergone a reinterpretation in " Götterort ".
It lead roads in the provinces of Sichuan ( Chengdu), Qinghai (Xining ) and in the neighboring country of Nepal. Lhasa is located on the National Road G318, which from Shanghai to Wuhan, Chengdu ( Sichuan Province ), Garzê, Litang, Batang, Markam (Tibet), Nyingchi to Lhasa runs and from there via Shigatse and Lhaze to Kathmandu in Nepal or from Lhaze leads as G219 via Western Tibet until after Kargilik at Yarkant in Xinjiang. In addition, Lhasa is situated at the end of the National Road G109, which runs from Beijing via Datong, Dongsheng, Lanzhou, Qinghai Lake and Golmud to Lhasa.
Since occurred on 1 July 2006 completion of the Lhasa railway, with a peak of 5,072 m the highest railway in the world and the highest with 5,068 meters of the train station, Lhasa is connected to the Chinese railway network. Thus, the travel time from Lhasa to Beijing shortened to about fifty hours. The extension of the Lhasa - Shigatse railway to is under construction.
The airport of Lhasa is 45 km to the south in the county Gongkar.
Culture and sights
According to the tradition of Tibetan Buddhism in Lhasa, there are three concentric pilgrimage routes. The innermost route Nangkhor, including a tour in the courtyard of the Jokhang Temple. The middle route is called Barkhor and includes a tour of the Jokhang Temple and other monasteries and temples in the old city. The outermost route eventually, Lingkhor, follows the former city limits. This part of town is also opened for tourists today.
The main attraction in Lhasa is the Potala Palace, the former palace of the Dalai Lama.
Opened in 1999, Tibet Museum displays more than 30,000 exhibits from the Tibetan culture (see Buddhist art ).
Founded in 1985 Tibet University is located in Lhasa.
Main road to Lhasa
Direct marketing of apples and rice
Roof of the Potala Palace
A mosque in Lhasa
The Jokhang Temple in Lhasa
Seen from Lhasa Potala palace
Debating young monks
Courtyard of the Potala Palace