Chinese are in German on the one hand, nationals of China, on the other hand, the members of the Han nationality. For a clear distinction of "ethnic Chinese ", the term Han Chinese or shortly Han has increasingly naturalized. In Chinese, a clear distinction between the Chinese people as citizens (Chinese中国 人/中国 人, Pinyin Zhōngguórén, man of the middle rich ' ) and the " ethnic Chinese " (汉族 人/汉族 人, Hànzúrén or汉人/汉人, Hànrén, human of the Han people ").
The Han make according to the 2010 census about 91.51 % today, the total population of the People's Republic of China ( 0.08 percentage points less than it was at the 2000 census ), approximately 98 % of the total population of the Republic of China and approximately 70 % of the total population of Singapore. In addition to the Han Chinese, there are still 55 in the People's Republic, the Republic of 14 other officially recognized peoples ( " nationalities "); see people of China.
Han people (Chinese汉族/汉族, Pinyin hanzu ) is the proper name of the ethnic Chinese. The term derives from the Han Dynasty, whose founder Liu Bang built its sphere on the Han River. During the Han Dynasty ( 206 BC to 220 AD), the ethnic group of the Han began to emerge. The Chinese language is called in Chinese Hànyǔ (汉语/汉语), ie " language of the Han".
Other dynasties be used for self- designation. Thus southern Chinese Han did not call, but Tang ( in Southeast Asian countries to date). This is quite logical, as its territories were inhabited only during the Tang from the north and the indigenous population was displaced or assimilated.
The Han Chinese are not a homogeneous group. Especially modern state institutions with their urge to unify and centralize deny this heterogeneity. This turns out, however, for example in the different languages of the Chinese language group and names of regions and their residents who are older than the Han Dynasty (eg, Wu Shu or ).
Subgroups of Han Chinese are, for example:
- The Hakka in Guangdong, Fujian, Taiwan, Jiangxi, Sichuan and Hainan
- The Hoklo in Fujian, Taiwan, Guangdong and Hainan
- The Tanka in Guangdong, Fujian, Guangxi, Hainan and Zhejiang
- The Chuanqing in Anshun City, Guizhou Province
- The Lingao Lingao in the circle of Hainan Province
- The cun in the city Dongfang and in the Autonomous District Changjiang Hainan province
- The Waxiang in the West of Hunan Province
The culture of the Han Chinese is therefore characterized by heterogeneity and variability. The actual culture- forming elements are the common writing (in some cases very different languages and dialects ) and a sense of shared history and tradition.
The history of related ethnic groups can be traced back writing about 4000 years. The Han Chinese people originated approximately in the period from the 2nd century BC to the 2nd century AD finally Since the 14th century there were repeated to great migration of Han Chinese from their original area of settlement.
Within China, the Han Chinese rose as the dominant and state-supporting culture, a development which is still funded by the central government today, for example, by measures of state education and targeted immigration ( Sinicisation ) in border regions of China (Tibet, Xinjiang ). So it was in the past, there are protests and government reprisals. On the other hand, the Chinese history was influenced by the 17th to the early 20th century, largely also of the people of the Manchu, which always constituted only a small minority of the Chinese family of nations, but during the Qing dynasty controlled the fate of China.
Also, most of the so-called overseas Chinese are Han Chinese. In many countries of Southeast Asia centuries Han Chinese have settled in the course and form there now quite large minorities, particularly in Malaysia and Thailand. Make Singapore Han Chinese even the clear majority. In Cambodia, fell a great part of the Han Chinese minority of the reign of terror of the Khmer Rouge victims. In Vietnam, there were persecutions of Han Chinese ( boat people ). In Indonesia, it came after the seizure of power by General Suharto to a genocide of the Han Chinese minority in the country with tens of thousands of casualties.
Famous Han Chinese
Xiao Yan 464-549
Li Bai 701-762
Du Fu 712-770
Zhao Kuangyin March 21 927 - November 14 976
Yue Fei 1103-1142
Zhu Xi 1130-1200
Zhu Yuanzhang September 21, 1328 - June 24, 1398
Zhu Di May 2, 1360 - August 12, 1424
Kang Youwei March 19, 1858 - March 31, 1927
Sun Yat-sen November 12, 1866 - March 12, 1925
Cai Yuanpei January 11, 1868 - March 5, 1940
Liang Qichao February 23, 1873 - January 19, 1929
Qiu Jin November 8, 1875 - July 15, 1907
Lu Xun September 25, 1881 - October 19, 1936
Guo Moruo November 16, 1892 - June 12, 1978
Song Qingling January 27, 1893 - May 29, 1981
Mao Zedong December 26, 1893 - September 9, 1976
Mei Lanfang October 22, 1894 - August 8, 1961
Anna May Wong January 3, 1905 - February 2, 1961
Wu Jianxiong May 31, 1912 - February 16, 1997
Ma Ying- jeou * July 13, 1950
Xi Jinping * June 15, 1953
Gong Li * December 31, 1965