Myshkin (Russian Мышкин ) is a town in the Yaroslavl Oblast in Russia. With 5932 inhabitants (as of October 14, 2010 ) it is the smallest city in the oblast.
- 2.1 Population development
- 3.1 Traffic
- 3.2 educational institutions
- 4.1 Museums
- 4.2 Structures
- 4.3 Regular events
The city is situated on the Volga River 233 km northeast of Moscow, 520 km south-east of Saint Petersburg and 85 km north-west of the regional center of Yaroslavl. Approximately 40 km north of Mishkin is the Rybinsk Reservoir. The Volga River is about 300 to 600 meters wide at the height of Myshkin. The nearest railway station Volga Stanzija is located 22 km north of the city. Myshkin is a town with about 20 associated villages. The total area of the district extends to about 100 km ². Directly opposite Myshkin flows into the river Juhot into the Volga. A little further north, on the other bank of the Volga, is the old village Ochotino with a cathedral from the 17th century.
Myshkin is located in the temperate zone continental climate with snowy winters and short hot summers. The average temperatures are in January minus 11 ° C and in July 17.5 ° C. The Volga end of November is usually covered with ice until the end of April (but the year 2007 was an exception ). The ecological situation in the city is safe. The water quality in the Volga in the region of Myshkin and upstream is also harmless and has no serious traces of pollution.
The legend of the origin of the city is as follows: On the high bank of the Volga once a prince is said to have (probably Fyodor Mikhailovich Mstislavsky ) made a nap after a successful hunt. He slept for several hours already, because a mouse jumped over his face and woke him up. The prince was angry at first, but saw the same moment next to a snake. The mouse saved his life. Then the prince summoned his men and ordered on this place a chapel in honor of Saints Boris and Gleb to build. Around the chapel, the city has emerged, which is called Myshkin (literally " city mouse ").
Excavations suggest that humans have lived on the site of the present town already to the 8th millennium BC. From the 7th century to the 5th century BC, the region inhabited the tribes of Djakovokultur, who belonged to the Finno -Ugric branch of the Uralic language family, and from which the tribe of the Merja emerged later. The Merja inhabited the territory around Myshkin in the 6th - 11th Century. The Slavic tribes, who were advancing more and more towards the north from the 11th century, mingled over time with the Merja. Several hydro and toponyms in the region around Myshkin go back to the Merja. The ongoing excavations still bring significant objects of art and craft of that era to the fore.
The high hill on the Volga River opposite the mouth of the river Juhot was favorable for the establishment of the settlement, which did not arrive until the 18th century the status of a city by the Edict of Catherine the Great. The findings of archaeological research in this space indicate the existence of a small town settlement in the 11th - 13th Century back.
The city had suffered greatly from the war of Novgorod and Suzdal princes mid-12th century, in 1238 it was completely destroyed by the Tartar warriors. Later Myshkin was rebuilt and lasted till the 17th century as a village Myschkino. In the 15th - 17th Century included the lands around Myshkin around the Prince Schumorowski, Uschaty, Juchotski, Mezecki, Mstislavsky, and later the Moscow Chudov monastery. 1551 were in the areas of Prince Uschatys between Myshkin and the city today lying in the Rybinsk reservoir under water Mologa prepared wood blocks for the walls and towers of the city Swijaschsk and along the Volga abgeflößt to the base of the Russian army at the siege of Kazan.
The location of Myshkin proved to be low because of the proximity of the Volga - current thresholds under which the passage was by the current threshold Myshkin Gate as particularly difficult. Driven by an entrepreneurial spirit animated inhabitants of the city piloted craft have learned and well deserved it, by conducting merchant ships through the sleepers.
Following the administrative reform of Catherine the II Myshkin 1777 has the status of a city, in 1778 received the coat of arms with the Yaroslavl Bears in the top and a mouse in the lower part and 1780 a city development plan, whose investment scheme has been preserved to this day essentially.
The 19th century became the heyday of Myshkin. The rich merchants Myschkiner Sizkow, Tschistow and Stolbow were known in many cities of Russia. A resident of the village Kajurowo, located in the administrative area of Myshkin, called Pyotr Smirnov Arsenjewitsch, was famous in the world as the inventor of the Russian vodka, the Smirnoff vodka. The city became an important trading center for the wholesale butter, bread, textiles, which were further delivered to St. Petersburg. Myshkin became the center of the assembly line in the region. Fyodor Konstantinovich Opotschinin founded in Myshkin a library which everyone Gouvernementstadt the honor would have done according to the assertions of the contemporaries.
1927 Myshkin has lost its city status in its history for the second time and was again in the village Myschkino ( Мышкино ) ( from 1943 urban-type settlement ) converted. In the 1940s, the construction of the Rybinsk Reservoir and the associated flooding of extensive territories also third Myshkin is gone. New wealth was 1969, the construction of a gas compressor station a few kilometers north of the city.
In 1966, the Ethnographic Museum was founded.
Much has changed in Myshkin in the course of perestroika and the subsequent years. In 1991, the city got back its status and was renamed back to Myshkin.
Note: Census data
Economy and infrastructure
Tourism is an important economic factor is rising. Counted the city early 90s 7,000 tourists, so their number increased tenfold in 2006 to 70,000.
With money from the tourism residents restored the cathedrals, and set the run-down in recent decades buildings repaired. All this has a positive effect on employment policy in the city itself and in the surrounding villages.
An important role in the economic development of the city is increasingly playing the gas compressor station with the corresponding through -line infrastructure of society " SEVGAZPROM ", which was built in the 70s of the 20th century. By Rajon Myshkin run three major oil and gas pipelines (oil pipeline "Druzhba " gas pipeline of the Nord Stream project) that contribute to improving the economic situation in the city and the county Myshkin an important contribution.
In the city there is a local hospital, which is also responsible for the medical care in Rajon.
Myshkin has no bridge across the Volga and no railway station. The nearest road link across the Volga runs over the dam in the 40 km (by road) remote town of Uglich. The nearest railway station is about 22 km north of the city. The transport by which the city's most frequented, are passenger ships and create upstream and pass down in the city. On the other bank of the Volga runs several times daily passenger and car ferry in the summer daytime hourly.
There are daily bus to the railway station Volga Stanzija, to Uglich, Rybinsk, Yaroslavl and in several villages of the district. In winter, the ferry service is set via the Volga, why get into this time of year vehicles only by going through Uglich on the other side of the Volga. However, if the ice is thick enough, the motor vehicle traffic also takes place directly on the Volga.
The most famous educational institution in the city is Opotschinin library. The core of the library formed only books from private collections of the great-grandfather of the famous military leader, Field Marshal Mikhail Kutuzov, books of the library's founder, including their by A. A. Tyutchev, the cousin of the Russian poet Fyodor Tyutchev, and many other merchants from the area. The library should be a foundation of scientific books, manuscript collections, and as a repository of rare books. Counted at the end of the 19th century, the library of 12,000 volumes. Here public events were organized and shown plays. In the library, a weather station was set up that used connections to other European cities.
Culture and sights
The residents and the well-known personalities Myshkin maintain and market the city as a classic Russian province with an authentic architecture and a unique atmosphere, the typical mid Russian landscape with the river, which became the urban element connects. The goal is to build a city as an open air museum and at the same time a living museum.
There are four theaters in Myshkin and a literary salon. Total Myshkin has an unusual for the size of the city density of museums, exhibition halls and other cultural institutions. There is also a picture gallery and a library of nearly 60,000 volumes. There is in addition a working forge and old forge.
1966 Ethnographic museum was opened in the city, which now counts over 15,000 objects of art and consists of several exhibitions.
Currently, the city has ten museums. In addition to the ethnographic museum, there is a commercial museum, the vodka manufacturer P. A. Smirnov, who was born in the district of Myshkin the museum; the Filzschuhmuseum, the Mouse Museum - the only one of its kind in the world, the Museum of family collections, the Museum of Kazkari ( a Russian -speaking minority, which speaks an old dialect ), the Museum of the Land of Utchema.
At the architectural landmarks of the city were two cathedrals: St Nicholas Cathedral ( Никольский собор ) that existed prior to the awarding of city status, and the Uspensky Cathedral ( Успенский собор ), built in the first half of the 19th century with the help of donations Myschkiner the merchants. In most buildings, which have an architectural, historical or historical relevance, either name tags or plaques are present.
Each year there are literary and cultural-historical reading rows in Myshkin. The reports above are printed in the old Myschkiner printing.
With the person by Fyodor Konstantinovich Opotschinin, a native of St. Petersburg, the formation of the first municipal library is connected. Opotschinin was the district chairman of the local nobility. He was responsible for the opening of schools and other educational institutions. Opotschinin was a historian, Archeograf, bibliophile and has also worked at the magazine " Old Time in Russia" ( " Русская старина " ) in Saint Petersburg.
The most famous man from the area around Myshkin, the vodka manufacturer P. A. Smirnov ( Smirnoff vodka), was born in the village in the district Kajurowo Myshkin. Recently, a museum was opened in his honor.
The brother of Fyodor Dostoevsky, Mikhail Dostoyevsky, who had spent some time living in Yaroslavl, the regional capital, is said to have given the writer's notice, the name of Myshkin in allusion to the small and little-known city for the prototype of the protagonist of his Romans to take the idiot.