The hoofs, named in southern Germany Hube, refers to both the farmstead, the ownership and use rights to the commons, the tion states a member of the rural community, and the area farmed by him. Therefore, it is also a ( large regional variations ) square measure.

  • 5.1 English hooves multiples
  • 5.2 Fifteen Acres same twelve Heredia

Historical significance of the hooves

" The word denotes a country hooves wirth nomic asset that can be ordered with a plow and found to comply with the labor power of a family. " Correlative The area was the 9th most estimated from the beginning to the 19th century to around 30 acres. Large farmers could with the help of many servants, and several Zugtiergespannen also manage 60 or even 120 acres. ( See also: Großhufe or Königshufe )

The morning itself was regionally and depending on the terrain of varying size. With the invention of the withers yoke in the Middle Ages and later by the use of a collar, the plow performance of draft animals grew significantly. In the south and west of Germany was the morning, probably for topographical reasons, generally slightly smaller. He was here mostly only between twenty and forty acres. In the North German Plain and the areas with sandy soils of the North and East of the morning could also be between fifty and seventy-five to over Ar. The relatives and serfs were not the owner of agricultural land, which they farmed, so the surface of the hoof was appropriate in some places so referred to as Lahn, as a fief.

In the Holy Roman Empire, the concept of hooves played particularly well in the German Ostsiedlung an important role. The hooves corresponded to the course of this colonization largely uninhabited areas a standard area, which was offered to the newly arriving farmers as a fief or as to be purchased possession. Not only farmers were hooves from the rulers bestowed, but also locators, mayor ( Schulzenhufe ) and knightly landowners ( Ritterhufe ), and in addition also for the maintenance of the church and pastor determined ( churches or Pfarrhufe ). Certain levies were set ( hooves interest ) that were in arable land, such as the Book of Charles IV recorded per hooves. In the West, such a new founding of villages had taken place in the so-called Binnenkolonisierung, for example, reduction in size of Meier yards, but in particular by neuro Dungen stately forests. See also: Waldhufen villages.

The newly established farms were initially taxed uniformly after the original, standardized hooves size. In the East, where the Neusiedelung lasted longer, this was a very long time, the common rule. In the south, west and north, however, where the land clearance was much earlier as good as finished, the smaller units morning, yoke or acre site was the taxation then almost invariably used as the actual Hofgrößen, even where they were originally the same had changed significantly through acquisitions, mergers and inheritances. Exactly why did the hooves here rarely receive as a legal square measure up to the 19th century. The term of hooves or Hube then called only one full-time operation of different surface.

Latin corresponds to the concept of the word mansus hoofs, and from the twelfth century and the Latinized German word Huba, where Mansus rather refers to the or the building (cf. Manoir ), Huba rather the surface. The two words hooves and yard are derived from Huba. ( Even the hoof, the Zehenendorgan the horses heard certainly in this word family. ) Regional saying instead Hube also Hueb or Huebm. In many German family names, the concept of hooves or Hube is still felt today. Some examples: Hufner, Huefner, Hubbauer, Huemer, Huber, Neuhuber, Hüber, Hübner, Hübener and many others.

In other European countries, there were the hooves appropriate units. The oldest English unit of area is the so -called Oxgang, the English Kleinhufe. This metrological reference field was in the definition of the English area and length measurements with respect to the values ​​of the Roman system of measurement Godfather. The word itself is Oxgang Danish- Norman origin. It appeared in England soon after 1066, and designated a seasonal yoke. It corresponds to that of arable land that can handle a single team of oxen plowing in the spring. In Eastern European, Slavic area is mostly the aforementioned term Lahn, for example: Lán Czech, Polish Łan, Ukrainian Лан, synonymous with the surface of hooves measure because their owners did not have the status of free peasants.

The Franconian hooves

The Franconian hooves was a fixed agricultural land that has been assigned since the ninth century in the Frankish Empire, and later the Holy Roman Empire in the village start-up new farmers as a standard surface. In this case, it was considered advantageous to design the hooves to be very long and relatively narrow areas. The newly established villages are so-called series villages where the right and left of a central axis, such as a road or a stream, the respective farm buildings in the distance of about 50 to 100 feet are together. Behind every peasant family had its up to almost two and a half kilometers long but not very wide agricultural area, consisting of vegetable and fruit gardens, meadows, fields, and finally forest. For example, see the map on the right of the hooves village Schönbrunn. If the area of the assigned strip of topographical reasons, have been somewhat less than the full hooves, it has been compensated for in the so-called compensation fields. These were, where appropriate, a little further away from the contiguous homestead area behind the house.

The Franconian Königshufe included 120 first Franconian field. The old Franconian field is a field of 360 × 120 Frankish foot, equal to 12 × 4 Frankish king rods. The Franconian Königsrute measures 30 feet. The Frankish foot is the same that was used in the city of Nuremberg to the 19th century and about 303 mm ⅞ measures. So this first, original Königsrute measured just under 9.12 meters. The metrologists of the first Frankish kings and emperors had this degree but of course not " fictitious " but it was, as always, in the ancient metrology, in conjunction with other known, even older moderation. The Frankish foot is not to be confused with the so-called Carolingian foot. The latter was initially practiced especially in the Rhineland, which is why it is commonly also often referred to simply as Rhenish foot. The former, the Frankish foot, however, is derived on the agilolfingisch -Bavarian foot of the since Roman times to the 19th century in the former Roman provincial capital Augsburg preserved Roman foot.

The Franconian hooves were first defined by the Franconian rod as follows:

Indeed, but were used in the course of time three kingdoms rods of different lengths for measuring the Franconian Königshufe, with their total but always remained the same.

  • The Franconian Königsrute is very old and measures about 9.12 meters. Its length is thirty Frankish foot. In connection with the Königshufe it was soon replaced by the following two king rods. The Franconian 15-foot tail but remained in use until well into modern times.
  • The Saxon Königsrute was used very early by the Saxon Liudolfingern for measuring the Franconian Königshufe. It is also a 30-foot rod and measures just 8.60 meters. It measures two Saxon Surveyor rods, as used in Saxony until the nineteenth century. Since the time of the Saxon Ottonian the dimensions of the Franconian Königshufe should now have a length of 270 and a width of 24 King rods. But this was not possible with the old definition to 5760 square rods. The Maßrute therefore had to be modified. The total should however remain the same. This was accomplished by the original Frankish foot was multiplied to about 303 mm ⅞, by the factor ( 2 √ 2/3 ≈ ) 0.94281. The newly acquired Saxon Königsfuß the Vermesserrute therefore measures about 286 ½ mm. This Ottonian Sachsenfuß spread throughout the empire; for example, to Hamburg or Stuttgart also and stayed there each officially until the adoption of the metric system in the 19th century. Thirty old Saxon foot measures the Saxon Königsrute. Fifteen old Saxon foot measures the Saxon Feldmesserrute.
  • The Salian Königsrute is attested since the beginning of the 12th century. It measures 30 -foot rod just under 9.42 meters, as a 15-foot rod that is just 4.71 meters. An old manuscript of 1106, so even among the last Salian, there is evidence that since that time, even longer and even narrower Königshufe was preferred. You should now be 720 king and those long rods over 30 wide. However, the Salian kings, as before, the Saxon, made ​​a point not to modify the original total area of ​​Königshufe. To accomplish this, had the new with the old Frankish Salic foot, so the Nuremberg foot, in the ratio 12: (3 √ 15) are available. The thirtieth of this Königsrute, or the fifteenth part of the royal half - tail, is the Salian foot. The Salian foot is identical to the Prussian foot. Even in the 18th and 19th centuries was the official in Prussia. The Prussian foot is so East Frankish origin. Contrary to many claims, particularly on the part of Prussia metrologists, Prussian foot but is not identical to the old Rhenish foot. The latter is related to the West Frankish dimensions and a good quarter of a millimeter shorter than the former.

Important Note: In the medieval manuscripts, as well as in the various metrological publications of modern times, the definition of Königsrute in feet is uneven. It is most often given as Doppelrute to thirty feet, but sometimes only as fifteen feet measured (three double - step ) rod defined. This article here bears that conceptual ambiguity account insofar as he, in the following, regularly takes the Königsrute as a 30-foot tail. Knowing that this " royal double Rods Rod " actually probably existed only on paper. The rods are so, not just a theoretical measure, but above all, a very specific meter of land surveyors in the field. In practice, however, the latter could with bulky so until about nine meters long, theoretical king rods do not work or only very difficult, which is why they then regular recourse in such cases to the corresponding half - tail. In the study of the sources, this ambiguity must be strictly observed.

Overview of the three different kingdoms rods, in which the Franconian hooves were successively measured:

The Fußmaß contained in the Salic Königsrute is equal to the Prussian foot, as already noted Walter Heinrich right in his research on Königshufe. But the Nuremberg foot has no official, legal translation. The Dresden Feldmesserrute was, latter day, defined as exactly 182 new Saxon customs measuring, and it necessarily (182 includes the prime 91) came to rounding. In the two tables above, therefore, was the Frankish or Saxon value of the relevant Königsrute, starting from the legal value of the Prussian foot, equal to 139.13 Parisian lines, according to the exact, the exact area -preserving ratio, calculated back. So the Frankish foot measures 139.13 x ( 2 √ 2/3) ≈ 134.67784 Parisian lines, the Saxon Königsfuß thus 139,13 × (12 / (3 √ 15) ) ≈ 126.98196 Paris lines.

Even the Nuremberg astronomer Johann Philipp von Wurzelbauer and the French Metrologist Johann Caspar Eisenschmidt (1737 ) reported both to the Frankish foot with 134.675 Parisian lines, so only about 0.002 % below. In 1808 Georg Kaspar Chelius took over in its metrological manual this value, well rounded to 134.7 Parisian lines. In 1830 Chelius increased its value to 134.75 PL, without giving reasons. But even the latter value is based only about 0.0536 % above that of the Salic - Prussian Königsrute exactly back-calculated value of the Frankish foot.

The Liudolfinger foot, so the Saxon Königsfuß the Ottos, is in Hamburg with 127.036 PL, as well as in Stuttgart with 127.0 PL very good condition. Only in the Kingdom of Saxony itself, the Saxon Königsfuß appear shortened by about 0.0395 %. This is when the modern definition of the old Saxon Feldmesserrute to exactly 182 new Saxon customs not surprising. According to the above value, would the old Saxon Feldmesserrute at about 182.1088 legal Saxon customs. Note further that the actual Dresdner foot in the Electorate of Saxony, with fairly accurate 283 ⅓ mm, about 0.05 % was longer than the later statutory requirements laid down in the conversion of the Kingdom of Saxony to metric dimensions to exactly 283.19 mm or 125.537 Parisian lines. The Saxon Feldmesserrute to 182 Electoral Saxony Dresden inch results in a Saxon Feldmesserrute to 15 × 126.9961 PL, which is only 0.011 % above the value specified in the table above.

These deviations, however, are all together in the green zone, which can be set at the old length measurements with approximately ± 0.05 percent. It was not until approximately between ± 0.05 % and ± 0.10% you will be in a yellow field, which then already somewhat questionable deviations.

The foot results of this king rods, in seven or elfglatten values ​​expressed: The Roman Fußmaß is known to be derived from the Nippurelle: 518.616 × (16 ÷ 28) = 296.352 millimeters. From the Roman foot is via the Bavarian Foot: 296.352 × (18 ÷ 16 ) × (14 ÷ 16 ) = 291.7215 mm the Frankish Foot: 291.7215 × (20 ÷ 16 ) × (10 ÷ 12 ) × (10 ÷ 12 ) = 303.8765625 mm (approx. 134.707 Paris lines) and then to the old Saxon Foot: 303.8765625 × (33 ÷ 35) = 286.5121875 millimeters (about 127.009 lines of Paris ).

The Salian foot is smooth: 11 ³ ( 35 × 5 ), ie 1331: 1215, the Saxon Königsfuß. The elfglatte value of the former is thus 313.8664375 mm and therefore is approximately 139.13574 Parisian lines, only slightly ( 0.0041 %) over the specified 139.13000 PL of the Prussian foot.

So widespread were the Franconian Königshufen

  • Either: 270 × 12 Saxon king Rods
  • Or even: 360 × 15 Salian king rods. The Franconian Großhufe was half of it.
  • The Franconian Landhufe measured a quarter of Königshufe.
  • The Franconian Kleinhufe was from the latter half again.

Other, later hooves Dimensions

Throughout the High Middle Ages, people clung to the traditional, Franconian dimensions of the hooves. In the late Middle Ages, however, and particularly in the Baltic region here first then other dimensions hooves came on. After the Binnenkolonisierung was completed within the empire in good part, the eastern settlement of the German Order began. The German Teutonic Order but was outside the bounds of the HRR and you therefore no longer felt there tied to the old Frankish hooves extent. It originated regional hooves extent to mostly thirty regional morning. This development wrote later also within the empire continued, so that it came to deviate from the Franconian hooves, regional land dimensions here.

Dimensions hooves outside and inside of the HRR

The Saxon is hooves, according to Walter Henry, thirty-six -Saxon arable. It is exactly 10: 24 to Franconian Königshufe. The Saxon hooves was probably divided into multiples and sub- multiples.

Hooves multiples using the example of Pomerania

Like the Frankish, as well as the later hooves dimensions were divided as multiples.

The concept of " Flemish hooves " must be understood as order of magnitude indication of this. ( Much like the " Brabant Elle " good half a dozen locally adapted, absolute length values ​​possessed. )

Regional differences in the use of the hooves

  • In northern Germany the hooves then called a full body builders se. The farmer in such a place was a full-fledged member of the village community as Hufner and could do business responsibly under applicable law in the village and participate in the peasant self-government. In many areas, the Hufenverfassung the villages received to the 18th century and had to be reset with the Verkoppelung. A special form of village establishment with hooves represents the march Hufendorf, which was often also located on the newly built dikes.
  • In southern Germany and Austria, Hube meant in modern times rather then a larger farm with sufficient agricultural land as a concrete surface measure. In a description of Carinthia says its author, Count Rosenberg, the late 18th century, as follows: " A Landhube to the old Renunciation 16 ⅓ surface mining, then an Maad, such as exist in some pasture, wood and Ströb. " In the Bavaria 17. century and in Württemberg taxed, the farms were more like the so-called " Hoffuß ", but whose area varied.
  • In West Germany the Hube remained as a legal measure only in the Prince-Bishop of Fulda and the Grand Duchy of Frankfurt present until the nineteenth century.
  • In East Germany, as well as in the Prussian territories of the German Reich, however, the hooves remained until the adoption of the metric system in general.

Wloka and Łan, Polish hooves and Lahn

Wloka, the Mazovia hooves, derives from the word włóczyć from what hauling 'or' pull ' means.

  • Wloka Renska (, hooves Rhenish ') corresponds to 7.6597 hectares.
  • Wloka Chełmińska (, Chelmno hooves ') corresponds to 17.838 acres.

The Polish word Łan goes well Lehan on the German word fief, Old High German, back.

As a unit of area is the German term " Lahn " occupied since about the 13th century as a loan word in Polish.

As a result of the partitions of Poland were in Lesser Poland since the late 18th century Austrian Dimensions:

The Austrian yoke was, but translated with Morga.

There was also a Polish Łan to forty-eight Morga.

Oxgang or Bovata, the English Kleinhufe

The English Kleinhufe, the Oxgang, lat bovata, measures just over six hectares. It sees itself as that of arable land that can be handled by a team of oxen plowing in the spring.

The Oxgang is also a reference field to a width of 660 English feet, so forty English rods or a furlong. The length of the reference field, the surveyor is 990 feet, so sixty English rods or just one and a half furlong. Therefore, the English Kleinhufe ( (660 × 0.3048 ) × (990 × 0.3048 ) ) measures = 60 702, 846 336 m², slightly more than six acres.

English hooves multiples

The Franconian Königshufe to 120 Franconian field equal to 47.9 hectares corresponds to the English carucate (fr: charrue, en: plow ) to 120 English acres equal to 48.6 hectares.

Fifteen Acres same twelve Heredia

Particular attention must the English Kleinhufe, the Oxgang so-called, are dedicated as this Norman reference field the English area and length measurements defined directly with respect to the Roman extent.

However, it may be reasonably ensured that this definition was not an original power of the Norman conquest of England after metrologists. Rather, these related only to the concrete and final implementation of a knowledge that had been available for several centuries. As is known, were the Normans end of the eleventh, not a few scholars and administrative staff come the beginning of the twelfth century to build the country from both the Capetian Western Empire and from the liudolfingischen Eastern Empire to England. On the continent, but these metro logical deduction must be for a long time been known since that is the prerequisite for the emergence of both the actual Rhine foot, which is indeed known as the Carolingian foot, as well as the Rhenish trade the foot, the foot of Cologne. Both are each 36: 35 and 33: 35 for English later called Fußmaß. But that the English dimensions are derived from the Roman and not by the Rhenish dimensions, seen from the definition of the English elfglatten field width to 660 feet clear.

However, the first bit strange choice of appearing furlongs to exactly 660 foot proves to actually as well- chosen.

The reason for this geflissentliche introduction of the eleven prime factor is exactly the same as for the introduction of the factor seven in the 14-foot - diameter rods of the HRR field. In fact, both elfglatte and seven smooth rods allow, thanks to a well-known since ancient approximation to assign a rational value of the diagonal of a square. Certainly long before Theon this approximation √ 2 ≈ 99 ÷ 70 noted in writing of Smyrna, it was very often used in practice, the field surveyors. Its relative error is only only 0.0051 %, which is far below the necessary in land surveying and practically achievable precision.

The surveyor made ​​to them, of course, these known approximation advantage to establish a clear, rational relationship between the new, later and to this day english mentioned dimensions and the old Roman. To this end, they determined should correspond to that sixteen Roman Arpent ( actus square ), including eight Roman yoke ( jugers ) or four Roman inheritances ( heredia ), future exactly five later English farmland ( acres ), the Roman Arpent a square field surface of twelve Roman ten -foot rods ( perticae ) page length.

According to this definition is: The width of the English Kleinhufe, in the graphic above in red, is equal to the diagonal of the Roman reference field to four Heredia (sixteen Arpent ), above in blue.

The length of the plow furrow, that is, the Furlong, the width of the English reference field Oxgang, that is (480 × 0.2963 m ÷ 70 ) × 99 = 201.168 meters. The Furlong is known to be 660 English feet. Therefore, the English foot 201.168 ÷ 660 = 0.3048 meters.

Since then entertain the English foot and the Roman foot the ratio 36: 35

The well-known English length and area measurements are not attested before the Conquest of England by the Normans in the British Isles. Only after the adoption of the Oxgangs, so the English Kleinhufe, they were in England then binding.