Quanzhou (Chinese泉州市, Quanzhou Pinyin shì ) is a prefecture -level city in southeast China's Fujian Province. The administrative area of Quanzhou has an area of 11,244 km ² and 7.86 million inhabitants ( 2010). The city had during the Yuan Dynasty one of the most important ports in the world. Among the most famous visitors to the city include Marco Polo and Ibn Battuta.
At county level, the city of Quanzhou is made up of four districts, three urban districts and four counties together. They are:
- Municipality Fengze丰泽 区, 132 km ², 180,000 inhabitants;
- City Licheng District鲤城 区, 52 km ², 270,000 inhabitants;
- Municipality Luojiang洛江 区, 382 km ², 170,000 inhabitants;
- Municipality Quangang泉港区, 326 km ², 370,000 inhabitants;
- Jinjiang City晋江 市, 721 km ², 1.03 million inhabitants;
- Nan'an City南安 市, 2035 km ², 1.48 million inhabitants;
- Shishi City石狮 市, 189 km ², 310,000 inhabitants;
- Anxi county安溪 县, 2983 km ², 1.07 million inhabitants, capital: greater community Fengcheng凤 城镇;
- Dehua county德化县, 2210 km ², 310,000 inhabitants, capital: greater community Xunzhong浔 中 镇;
- Circle Hui'an惠安 县, 762 km ², 920,000 inhabitants, capital: greater community Luocheng螺 城镇;
- Yongchun county永春 县, 1452 km ², 550,000 inhabitants, capital: greater community Taocheng桃 城镇.
In addition, the People's Republic of China, which regards the under the control of the Republic of China on Taiwan coastal barrier island group as Jinmen Jinmen county (金门 县) Quanzhou City.
Quanzhou is located near the mouth of the Jin Jiang in the Taiwan Strait in the south of Fujian province. The city has a very mild climate with average annual temperatures of 15 to 21 degrees Celsius.
Under the name Zaytoun ( Zaitun, Chinese刺桐 城, Pinyin Citong chéng ), which was derived from the many olive trees in the area, Quanzhou was an important trading port for the fifth century.
In the thirteenth century the importance reached its climax when the Silk Road through numerous wars and robberies had become unsafe and were preferred, therefore, a silk road of the sea. During the Song Dynasty and the Yuan Dynasty, many Arab and Persian merchants inhabited the city. There were trade routes to Africa and Arabia to the west and to present-day Indonesia. There are also theories that the Arabs came Quanzhous Chinese inventions like gunpowder or the pressure in the West and thus to Europe.
In the Ming and Qing dynasty fell slowly to the port, not least through the Seehandelsverbot that prevailed at times. The overpopulated city was affected by numerous waves of emigration toward Southeast Asia and Taiwan.
Among the prefecture-level cities in Fujian's Quanzhou is the city with the largest economic power. Quanzhou is an important center stone masonry and the surrounding area of the city there are quarries, as well as countless companies that deal with the manufacture of memorial plaques, statues or just beautiful stones. Also, tiles, with which many houses are clad in China outside made . This exposed Quanzhou and around a very high dust loading.
- GDP: 122.3 billion yuan
- GDP per capita: 16,650 yuan
Numbers: Fujian Statistical Yearbook 2003 ( 2002 figures)
- The Kaiyuan Temple is built during the Song period huge temple complex just outside the city center. Although it is preserved only in parts, it is still covering an area of 6000 square meters. It is dominated by the added in the 13th century twin pagodas, which are very solidly built and have next to some earthquake survived the Cultural Revolution unscathed. The pagodas such as the main hall are decorated with precious carvings. At the western end of the facility stands an old sycamore tree where, according to legend Lotus flowers have appeared, which has been the cause for the construction of the temple and is also responsible for the secondary name of the temple, lotus temple.
- The Qingjing Mosque is also preserved only in parts, but it is founded in the year 1000 and thus one of the oldest mosques, which there is in China. Since it has a very Arabic style by Chinese standards, it is evidence of how high the number of Arab-Americans residents Quanzhous must have been in the time of flowering of the city.
- The Guandi Miao is dedicated to the heroes Guan Yu. This very lively temple is guarded by life-size statues guard on horses; inside, you can visit wall carvings depicting scenes from the life of Guan Yu.
- The Maritime Museum shows the history of maritime trade, the Quanzhou has once made rich. It has numerous ship models, including those ships of the legendary Admiral Zheng He, and illustrates how far ahead of China was to medieval Europe.
Quanzhou has a newly built airport, located about 20 km east of the city. But he only has a few inbound links.
Quanzhou is located about two hours' drive north of the city of Xiamen and 4-5 hours drive south of the city of Fuzhou, both with international airports. From both cities there are frequent connections by bus. Similarly, there are long-distance buses in many other cities in China.
Trains there is only the inland, to Fuzhou or Xiamen there are no direct train connections.
Quanzhou has three partnerships with foreign cities:
- Japan Urasoe in Japan ( since 1987)
- United States Montreal park in the United States (since 1994)
- Germany Neustadt on the Wine Route in Germany (since 1995)