A fountain is a structure used to obtain water from an aquifer. To promote various types of pumps are used, for example, electrical submersible pumps, electric vacuum pumps or hand pumps. Similarly, other mechanical devices as well bucket or water arts are widely used for water pumping. A special form are artesian wells, where the well is drilled into a confined aquifer, so that no devices are required for water pumping.
- 5.1 well after construction
- 5.2 wells by location
Drinking water is essential for human survival. Through the entire history of mankind temporary camps or settlements were built near water bodies such as springs, rivers and freshwater lakes.
From the Mesolithic dwelling place Friesack in Brandenburg three pits are known that were created by hunter-gatherers for drinking water (water holes). In this function indicate scoops out a tortoise shell and made of birch bark, which have been discovered on the pit soles.
Wells are ( BC Pre- Pottery Neolithic B, 8000 ) demonstrated in the Mediterranean since the PPNB, as in Atlit Yam (Israel ) or Kissonerga - Mylouthkia and Shillourocambous Cyprus, where they were drilled in the massive sandstone. From the PPNC (ca. 7000 BC), there are three wells in Atlit Yam (Israel). In Central Europe, wooden fountain since the early Starčevo culture ( about 6000 BC), known by a finding place in Slavonski Brod in Croatia.
A series of testimonies of the band Ceramic digging wells demonstrate the spread of this type of water supply since the first farming settlements in Central Europe.
- The earliest Linear Pottery fountain is detected in a settlement of the oldest Pottery Mohelnice ( Moravia ). Of the planks are dendrochronological before, with ages of 5540 ± 5 BC to 5460 ± 5 BC, the sapwood lack the planks. In addition to the first phase of the fountain of Plaußig Eythra 2 (in the open pit Zwenkau ) Brodau and Dresden- Cotta into the 53 century BC dated ( 5300-5200 BC). A cluster of dated well, there are around 5100 BC, as in the case of Erkelenz - Kückhoven, Eythra 1 and the Fountain of Altscherbitz. The 2007 discovered fountain of Niederröblingen ( district of Mansfeld - South Harz ) fits into this fountain horizon of the younger Pottery.
Europe's deepest wells ( about 15 m deep) from the Stone Age (about 5100 BC) was discovered during Merzenich - Morschenich and secure in the block. From the Corded Ware wells are known with a lining of wattle.
Wells to obtain water and as Nutzbrunnen
A distinction is made between running and draw well. The easiest fountain is a bowl made of wood or natural stone, with which the fluid from a source of water is collected directly before it is forwarded to a stream.
Through natural pressure simple standpipes are possible. The water is taken at a higher altitude and flows through a line along the natural terrain slope to the fountain. The water flow is continuous when running well, a mechanical conveyance unnecessary. In many cases, running fountains are provided with additional tanks or troughs that serve as cattle troughs, for laundry or washing vegetables.
Taking a deep well (or draw-wells ) refers to a mostly vertical man-made hole in the ground or in the rock, which can be either small or large and plumbed and maintained by the natural strength of the surrounding material ( walk-in wells). In the North German called dug wells formerly Sodbrunnen or merely Sod. From modern narrow holes, the water is promoted by technical aids ( winch or pump, hand pump, for example ) upwards.
Ziehbrunnen are from the early Neolithic demonstrated ( Cyprus) as primitive wells that in the ground by wooden structures ( wooden box wells) were stabilized. These scoops are used to facilitate the procurement of water, especially during impregnation of livestock. A well known example is the Fountain of the Puszta, so there throughout the steppe belt of Eurasia and elsewhere. In addition to the use of leverage over the swing beam to facilitate the work on the counterweights, wheels, ropes and draft animals are ( donkeys, camels ) in use. The common in Central Europe puller, in which a rope is wound on a relatively small roundwood, however, is technically not a very effective solution.
To measure the groundwater level one can use the depth sounder, the fountain pipe, the water level gauge, resistor strings, or an echo sounder.
The artesian well is a natural fountain, communicating tubes rising from the ground like a system from overpressure. The climb channel is typically created artificially and thus a deep well.
A special form of fountains represent the widespread mainly in Iran, Afghanistan and in the western part of Pakistan qanats in which it is horizontal water collection tunnels with multiple vertical access shafts.
Wells were up to the introduction of tap water as public places of water supply meeting place for people and especially for washerwomen, they have this social function in many countries remains. Many historic fountains are now listed and are partly in sight. This well systems are today an attraction in public space.
Wells were designed as symbols of power the builder since the Renaissance, often pompous, it was about the Fontana di Trevi in Rome as a foundation by Pope Nicholas V., on the occasion of the restoration of the Aqua Virgo, built.
With the advent of water pipes, which brought the supply water directly to households disappeared the removal and wash fountains in public space. They were in many villages and towns replaced by more or less artistically designed fountains. You can then often the complexity of water features to achieve: components of such water features are also fountains, cascades and pools.
The water cools by evaporation in summer and thus contributes to improving the microclimate. In the Islamic world indoor fountains are an important part of palaces, as they lower the interior temperature.
Ornamental fountains have a circulation pump. It is therefore replaced the evaporated water. They should be emptied before the first frosts.
In Upper Franconia, especially Franconian Switzerland, there is the custom of decorating Easter Fountains in celebration of Easter. In Swabia, there are some cities in the custom of the annual so -called purse washing in the fountain. In some cities, people are thrown into a well at carnival. Coins that are thrown into a well, should lead to happiness or a return to the well, such as specially the Trevi Fountain in Rome. At the Popperöder source in Mühlhausen / Thüringen a fountain festival is celebrated every year of primary school children. These bouquets are submerged in the fountain, dancing fountain special dances and songs sung well.
- Well as the heraldic symbol
Bad Fischau -Brunn in Lower Austria
Bad Sauerbrunn in Burgenland
Brunn in the Upper Palatinate
Fountain valley in Switzerland
Brunntal in Baden
Waldbrunn in Lower Franconia
Bad Heilbrunn in Upper Bavaria