The railway between Malmö and Ystad is a Swedish railway track in Skåne. It was built by Ystad Malmo Järnvägsaktiebolag ( MYJ ), a private railway company, between Malmö and Västra Ystad. Since the track was built with strong support of the former landlords that they pass led close to their manors, the route as Grevebanan ( German Graf train) was called.
Since the name of reform of the Swedish railway lines by Banverket 1990, the section Lockarp - Simrishamn is called Ystadbanan.
For the establishment of a railway line between Malmö and Ystad sat especially the Earl of Börringekloster, Beck- Friis Corfitz, a. Already in 1866 he had saved enough money to study for a building of a distance between Ystad and Malmo could be initiated with a branch to Trelleborg. At a meeting on 2 May 1866 in Malmö, the master of väg -och was vattenbyggnadskåren ( German road and hydraulic engineering office ), instructed Ms N. Frykholm, with the investigations and the preparation of a cost estimate.
In September 1866 Frykholm finished his studies. On September 26, another meeting was held, at which a committee was appointed with 14 people. Frykholm presented to this committee prior to his proposals. In the context of a standard gauge railway he had worked two variants:
- Proposal 1 included an estimate of 4,150,000 crowns. Here, a superstructure with rails should be built with a weight per meter of 29 kilograms. This proposal did not include vehicles and stipulated that Statens Järnvägar should operate the route with their locomotives and cars.
- Proposal 2 included a cost estimate of 4,750,000 crowns. The superstructure should be built in a lighter design with rails with a meter weight of 24.5 kilograms. For this purpose the procurement of own vehicles was provided and in agreement with SJ and Ystad - Eslövs Järnvägsaktiebolag ( YEJ ) the joint use of railway stations in Malmö and Ystad.
Decision for the gauge
On July 1, 1869 was followed by another meeting. Frykholm was asked to calculate a cost estimate for an even simpler superstructure. This proposal amounted to 3,950,000 crowns and included the purchase of five steam locomotives. Cars were not included in the calculation because it was assumed that this would provide SJ. From SJ- page no interest in this variant was present, so the proposal with the procurement of wagons was recalculated. Now, the perspective was 4.39 million crowns.
Now applications have been submitted for a license as well as a loan from the public sector. As was informed that there was no likelihood of government grants, let by the interest in the track construction. Only in the summer of 1872 more meetings held in Anderslöv. They decided to investigate what the cost would be if the track would be built as a narrow gauge railway. Vattenbyggnadskåren JM Ekströmer, captain of väg -och, was commissioned to carry out this study. He came to the conclusion that a narrow gauge railway with a track width of 891 mm and rails with a weight of 17 kg / m for the between Malmö and Ystad would cost 2,269,033 crowns, and a branch line between Skabersjö and Trelleborg 732 335 crowns.
Ekströmers proposal met with approval by early 1872 E. Sandell, Lieutenant väg -och vattenbyggnadskåren, was commissioned again studies and cost estimates for a narrow gauge railway with its own railway station on the west side of the harbor in Malmö and a private station in Ystad perform. Sandell presented the proposal on November 2, 1872 in Malmo before. It was a track by the track width 1067 mm and with rails with a weight of 17.2 kg / m, the estimated 2.4 million crowns including vehicles this.
Ystad Malmo Järnvägsaktiebolag
This proposal met with approval. Again, a twelve -strong committee was formed, which met on December 3, 1872. It was found that in the meantime shares for nearly a million crowns had been drawn. The draft Statute was approved and decided to form the Malmö - Ystad Järnvägsaktiebolag. Chairman of the Board Earl Beck- Friis Corfitz was elected, the Panel also included Count Arvid Posse, Baron Julius Stjernblad, Earl O. Thott, Captain M. Hall Borg, Cabinet Chamberlain G. von Geijer, Consul H. Friis, P. Kockum landowner and Businessman at W. Luttropp.
The Assembly decided to apply for a license for the route Ystad - Malmo. It was also decided to apply for a license for the route Börringe - Anderslöv to build this, if enough money were available.
The question of gauge has been over the years a problem. The Annual General Meeting authorized the Board to build a track to standard gauge 1435 mm, provided that the money was applied for the additional cost of 400,000 crowns. The ongoing discussion followed the decision that the track would be built as a narrow gauge railway. Stjernblad, who had argued for standard gauge, then requested his resignation from the board.
On December 31, 1972, the concession for a narrow gauge railway between Malmö and Ystad was requested. In January 1873 Stjernblad announced 200,000 crowns as collateral, if the board would reverse its decision and instead decide to build the line to standard gauge. Now, the Board agreed and requested changes to the concession. This was granted on 4 February 1873, it was Stjernblads owe tenacity that the track was built in 1435 mm.
Under the direction of E. Sandell began in early April 1873, the construction work. Over 1,000 men worked on the construction site and at the end of the entire embankment was traced out. On September 19, 1874, the rails were laid along the entire route. During construction, improvements have been made yet. Thus, stations and bus stops were built, as planned from the beginning. In Ystad no separate station was built, but the existing of Ystad Eslövs Järnvägsaktiebolag shared.
In order as soon as possible to generate income, the route should be opened as soon as possible, even if not all sites were completed. Thus, the opening for the general freight was held on 16 December 1874. The release for public transportation was made on 21 December 1874. Concluding work at the track still lasted a long time afterwards.
The final cost amounted to 3,393,335 crowns. For this money a railway line was developed, which was built to standard gauge, was equipped with iron rails weighing 22 kg / m and exhibited alongside the main road with 63 kilometers of sidings of 8.5 kilometers. The minimum curve radius was 350 meters, the maximum incline 10 per thousand and the maximum speed 30 km / h On vehicles four tank locomotives, eleven two-axle passenger cars, four two-axle mail car and 79 two-axle freight wagons were available.
The car park was developed during the time as a private railway as follows:
- Steam locomotives: Tenderlok: 1874: 4, 1925: 8, 1940: 6
- Schlepptenderloks: 1874: 0 1925: 4, 1940: 1
- Passenger cars: biaxial: 1874: 11 1925: 23 1940: 18
- Passenger cars: three-axis: 1874: 0, 1925: 7, 1940: 7
- Bogie wagons four axes: 1874: 0 1925: 4, 1940: 7
For the railway construction no public aid granted. Thanks to the participation of local landowners in the construction of the route Grevebanan was called. The interests of the donors is reflected in the lines. Each farm had a railway station or a bus stop near the property. This meant that the railroad did not always follow the shortest line. These so-called lock stations were Skabersjö, Börringe, Næsbyholm, Marsvinsholm and Charlotte Lund.
After the recent opening of the railway in 1874 Ystad Ystad Eslöv - Eslövs Järnvägsaktiebolag ( MYJ ) Collaboration between the two companies has been agreed. This collaboration was that the train service was regulated by a common transport manager. 1912, the cooperation by the formation of the consortium Trafikförbundet Ystad Järnvägar was formally adopted. Although cooperation was very close, MYJ remained as an independent company exist. The first traffic manager was born in 1832 Carl Victor Waldenstrom, who held the office from 1866 to 1896.
The increasing number of vehicles placed increased demands on the maintenance of locomotives and wagons. The two oldest workshops were gradually narrow and outdated. YEJ therefore decided together with MYJ together to build a new, modern workshop in Ystad. This was built in 1912-1913 and served for the maintenance of rolling stock in Trafikförbundet Ystad Järnvägar.
In the following years, major investments for the improvement and extension of both distance and buildings was undertaken. This was mainly due to the track a sequence of parsimony in the construction phase. Residential buildings, railway stations and staff buildings were complemented and built, expanded the freight facilities and wooden bridges replaced with new steel. By 1890, the iron rails were replaced with steel rails with a weight of 22.5 kg / m.
1897 a new, spacious station building in Malmö was built in 1894 Svedala got a new station building. Through the new rebuild with steel rails weighing 32 kg / m was 1905, the permissible axle load from nine to 13 tons and the maximum speed to 70 km / h increases. In addition this was the equipment of the line mechanical signal and point locks, modern pre-signals and a variety of barrier systems on roads and paths that crossed the line.
In the early 1920s were started, the rails to swap again against heavier rails with a weight of 41 kg / m. After completion of work, the speed limit was increased to 90 km / h.
Nationalization and further development
Like many other private companies, the Malmö - Ystad Järnvägsaktiebolag had big economic problems before the Second World War. The risk of insolvency and closure were often given. Therefore, were part of the general railroad nationalization on 1 July 1941, all railway companies that were associated in a consortium Trafikförbundet Ystad Järnvägar, nationalized.
After the takeover by Statens Järnvägar no significant changes were made. Routinely carried out maintenance of the route along with some modernization of the safety devices and in residential buildings.
The rails on the track have been replaced over the years again by those with higher weight per meter. The safety systems were modernized, including the introduction of optical signals and electric-powered barrier systems. The major railway stations were partially provided with electrically controlled switches.
On June 10, 1955, the route Malmö Västra - Södervärn was shut down. The track received a new connection between Hindby and a temporary junction at the Lönngatan. From this point the journey trains ran from Malmö central station. The freight remained until March 1, 1972, the section between Hindby and Södervärn.
In the early 1970s, a new route between Fosieby and Oxie was built. As of June 4, 1973, the traffic was recorded on the newly laid track. Thus, the distance Lönngatan - Hindby - Oxie could be shut down, the line was dismantled.
1974, a rail ferry for freight between Ystad and Świnoujście was opened in Poland. Thus, the freight has been greatly expanded. The insignificant local freight trains were replaced by the trains to and from the ferry terminal in Ystad.
In 1991 the line was equipped with Automatic Train Control (ATC ), which was put into operation on June 3. In the years 1994 and 1995 there was a comprehensive renovation of the track. It meets the today's conventional modern standard. The renovation included both electrification and remote control. The electrical operation started on 8 June 1996 and the remote control on 20 June 1996. The route is fully utilized for freight and passenger transport.
This new track connections originated in Lemmeströ and Rynge. The stations in Oxie and Svarte were reopened. The Marsvinsholm station was one of the so-called Castle stations. There kept the trains until 1972, since then there is again a stop for theatergoers on Marsvinsholm Castle.
After the electrification of passenger transport increased significantly, in 2003 the Rydsgård station was expanded to allow train crossings.
The last change in passenger took place on 15 August 2011. Since then ride the passenger trains through the newly built City tunnels. A new connecting track was also built by Lockarp after Svågertorp at the Öresundsbana.
From the mid- 1950s, the first diesel railcars were used on the track. The last steam -run passenger trains disappeared in 1962 and from the early 1980s took over railcars of Y6 - series passenger traffic. They were followed by vehicles of the type Y3. When these railcars retired, perverted locomotives of the type T44 in passenger and freight traffic.
In 1990, the province of Skåne län responsibility for passenger services on the route. From this point on railcars of class SJ Y1 were used. The route was part of the Pågatåg - Regionazug network. The service is operated by Skånetrafiken.