Santiago del Estero Province

( Details)

( Details)

- Total - Percentage of Argentina

136,351 km ² 4.92

- Total 2011 - Density

892 738 inhabitants 6.55 inhabitants / km ²

Santiago del Estero is a province in the northern lowland subtropical Argentina with hot air.

  • 2.1 situation of the rural population
  • 2.2 Situation in the cities
  • 5.1 Agriculture 5.1.1 wheat
  • 5.1.2 sorghum


The province is in the northeast half almost invariably flat, while the southwest half is hilly, there is the low mountain ranges of the Sierra de Ambargasta are (southwest), Sierra de Sumampa (south) and Sierra de Guasayan (west ) with a maximum height of 800 m. All three countries are part of the mountain system of the Sierras Pampeanas.


The climate is subtropical in Santiago del Estero. Campo Gallo belongs in the northeast of the province, together with Rivadavia, Salta and Villa de María in Córdoba to the two places where the highest temperatures of South America were measured ( 47.3 ° C). The average temperature is between 19 in the mountains in the south and 23 ° C in the northeast, in the summer there are 25 to 29 ° C, in winter 12 to 16 ° C. The East is the more humid part of the country with up to 800 mm of precipitation per year, throughout the territory but the winters are dry.

Flora and Fauna

Santiago del Estero is one scenic, but not culturally, just in the Gran Chaco, and is of a bush forest ( "Monte" ) covers, consisting of sparse trees (eg Algarrobo, quebracho ) high tree cacti and thorns bulky (eg Vinal is up to 15 cm long spines ). Many plants bear edible fruits, which are collected and recycled. In between there is grass, can graze on the goats, donkeys and some cows, but livestock on a large scale as in the boonies is not possible. The floor is nitrous, south of the province, there are salt flats. In "Monte" one hand there are many dangerous animals such as snakes, pumas, scorpions, on the other hand also game species such as armadillos, Viscachas ( lagomorphs ) and iguanas. Usually the men improve the bill of fare on the hunt.

A special case in the vegetation increases the Sierra de Guasayan in the southwest of the province, which is covered by a significantly denser vegetation, similar to the jungles of the Yungas. This is because the mountain dammed the rain clouds and thus more precipitation than the rest of the province receives.


Santiago del Estero is 136,351 km ² with about 3.8 times the size of Baden- Württemberg ( 35,751 km ²). The province is of medium size for Argentine relations and sparsely populated with only about 900,000 inhabitants. Only about 267,000 of these live in the provincial capital.

Santiago del Estero is one of the poorest provinces of Argentina. The gross national product is only $ 2,035 per capita, and thus comes to less than a quarter of the national average, which stands at $ 8860 (For comparison: In Germany it is $ 23,650. ). Santiago del Estero is thus still well below the Latin American average, which stood at $ 2,950 per capita in 1993. Published in the newspaper " El Liberal " study referred to by the 28 departments of the province of the poverty situation in only four departments as "good " in eight "normal", in four as "bad", in eleven as "very bad" and in a as "intolerable ". This means that the situation is, for example, in the department of Choya, referred to as "good", 26.9 % of the 30 691 inhabitants live below the poverty level, 14.1% of the houses are shacks, 37 % of the apartments have no sanitary facilities that illiteracy rate is 6.4% and the residents of 46 schools and 66 doctors ( 1:465 inhabitants) are available. In the department Salavina, which has no large towns, and whose situation is referred to as a "very bad", live from the 9100 population of 61.8 % below the existence minimum, 65.3 % live in barracks, 82 % of houses do not have sanitation, the illiteracy rate is 11% and there are 37 schools and three doctors (1:3 033 inhabitants). The relatively high number of schools explained by the fact that it is a two-class or rural schools at most.

Situation of the rural population

The situation of the rural population: in the province of Santiago del Estero are in contrast to most other provinces of Argentina no big Estanzien with fenced grounds. The farmers live scattered in the "Monte" and living by farming on a small scale. This sector includes approximately 15,000 families or 70,000 persons, or about ten percent of the province 's population. The ownership of the land are unclear. The residents are families who have been living there for generations, but do not have written proof of ownership. Again and again a third party presenting themselves as landowners, some of which even have documented evidence, but not inhabit the country and attempt to expel its inhabitants. As it is currently a climate change in progress and it is humid, wins the earth in value and is so interesting for companies from abroad or other provinces. By law, a person is the owner of the land, if they or their ancestors at least 20 years inhabited the land, edited and improvements (eg, wells, fences ) has created. However, the small farmers do not have the financial means to exercise this right. Many rural residents are forced to emigrate to the cities and thus losing not only their livelihoods but also their home, their cultural roots and their identity. The staff of the diocesan Pastoral Social support these threatened with expulsion of people and help them, their rights to some. The rural women spinning with a hand spindle and weave blankets by ancient Indian techniques. In some cases there is also agriculture on a large scale, mainly in the area around Fernandez. There, cotton is grown traditionally. In recent years, however, the fields are no longer harvested, since the decline in prices, costs caused by the harvest exceeded the profits. Genetic engineering makes even prior to this remote province not stop, soya is now the new staple crop that is particularly interesting because since the crisis, the meat prices have risen sharply. Since the earning potential in the country is not enough for survival, most men work as seasonal workers in the fields in the province of Buenos Aires.

Situation in the cities

In the cities, people mostly work ( typical professions: police officer, teacher / in and nurse ) in the public sector, and there are self-employed and many who work in the informal sector.


The Santiago del Estero province belongs culturally to the northwest of Argentina. The original inhabitants of this part of the country, the Diaguita and other tribes that lived in villages and agricultural. In contrast, the largest parts of present-day Argentina were inhabited by nomadic and semi- nomadic hunting peoples. In the nearby Andean region people lived in stone houses and fortifications ( Pucara ). The tribes of the Northwest stood at the time of the conquest by the Spaniards under the cultural influence of the Incas, where they were obliged to taxes. In Santiago, the Incas settled in a Quechua speaking people, which supplanted the original inhabitants. This Quechua people mingled later with the Spanish immigrants, and so created a new culture with elements from both cultures of origin. To this day, is spoken in the country of the Quechua dialect Quichua Santiagueño, but the more and more disappears. The younger generation speaks almost exclusively spanish, apart from some very remote areas, but in which the school is also held in Spanish only. Meanwhile, although Quichua courses are offered, and it is fashionable to call especially social institutions in Quichua, but generally the Quichua Santiagueño is counted among the endangered languages.

Santiago del Estero is called the oldest city of Argentina, correctly you have it but as the oldest continuously inhabited city call. Santiago was founded in 1553 by Spanish conquistadors, who came from Peru. Later it became an important stopping point on the road from the Bolivian silver mines to the Río de la Plata.

Administrative divisions

The Santiago del Estero province is divided into 27 departments.



Agricultural production Santiago del Esteros consists mainly of the cultivation of cotton, soybeans, corn, wheat, and the cultivation of vegetables and sorghum for the internal market.


The wheat experienced since 2000 a rapid increase, as identified by the expansion of areas of traditional 40,000 hectares by 1999 to 184,000 hectares in 2004. Parallel, the production increased from 95,800 tons to 282,000 tons in the same period. Wheat increased with 26.5 million dollars on erwirtschaftenen the third most important export product of the province.


The production of sorghum in 2004 was about 240,000 tons, remaining on average for the years 1991-2004. Sorghum is mainly used as feed in cattle. The production is for the most part the internal Argentine market and a small portion of the export.


From the province of Santiago takes the Chacarera, a style of music that has become the most famous folklore of Argentina.

Some important figures in the history of Santiago del Esteros are Colonel Juan Francisco Borges, leader of the Revolutionary War ( ancestor of the writer Jorge Luis Borges ), the painter of the 19th century Felipe Taboada, as well as the revolutionary leader Mario Roberto and Francisco René Santucho, founder of the Partido Revolucionario de los Trabajadores ( the Revolutionary Party of workers, PRT ) and the Ejército Revolucionario del Pueblo ( the Revolutionary Army of the People, ERP).

In the arts field, the city provided important representatives as Ramón Gómez Cornet, Carlos Sánchez Gramajo, Alfredo Gogna, Ricardo and Rafael Touriño in the visual arts and Jorge Washington Ábalos, Bernardo Canal Feijoo, Clementina Rosa Quenel, Ricardo Rojas and Julio Carreras ( h) in the literature.

Santiago's musical heritage is one of the most important cultural aspects of the city, with the characteristic folk dances and Chacarera Zamba. Among the many famous artists and groups, has brought the province, there are the Manseros Santiagueños, Alfredo Ábalos, Jacinto Piedra and Raly Barrionuevo.