- Indo-European Slavic South Slavonic Ostsüdslawisch macedonian
The Macedonian language ( mazedon. македонски јазик, transliterated Makedonski jazik ), also Macedonian language and Slawomazedonisch is a language from the South Slavic subgroup of the Slavic languages , which in turn belong to the Indo-European languages . It is mainly spoken in the Republic of Macedonia.
The most closely related to the Macedonian language is Bulgarian. The Macedonian dialects are part of a dialect continuum, which continues to both Bulgarian and Serbian for.
- 7.1 Nominal System 7.1.1 definiteness
- 7.2.1 mode
The Macedonian is expected in linguistics, together with the Bulgarian to the Eastern group of South Slavic languages that can be. Numerous features of the western group and partly also differs from the other Slavic languages
Due to the great similarity to the Bulgarian Macedonian dialects were, as long as no independent Macedonian literary language was usually classified as Bulgarian dialects, so that Bulgarian has been used synonymously with Ostsüdslawisch. In Bulgaria, this view is common today. In the Republic of Macedonia, however, today all autochthonous Slavic varieties of the historical and geographical region of Macedonia are classified as Macedonian, so here Macedonian is used synonymously to South Slavonic in the field of historical and geographical region of Macedonia.
As part of the justified not on genealogical linguistic relationship, but on language contact by spatial proximity Sprachbund Theory Macedonian language belongs to the Federation of Balkan languages .
Macedonian is spoken by about 2 million people as a native language. The majority of the speakers regarded themselves as members of the Macedonian people. Of the approximately 1.3 million speakers live in Macedonia, where it is the official language.
Smaller groups of speakers live in Bulgaria ( 1376 ), Greece and Albania, where the exact numbers are disputed due to classification problems and lack of exact statistics. The living in southeastern Albania mazedonischsprachige small minority maintains its own schools.
In the northwest of Greek Macedonia there is a minority that speaks ostsüdslawische varieties which are attributed by many slavonicists the Macedonian. The Macedonian standard language is there but not in use, so that it is " roofless outdoor dialects ". In Greece, these varieties are usually referred to as Slawomazedonisch, Bulgaromazedonisch or simply as Slavic, since the word Macedonian with reference to the Greek region of Macedonia used habitually as a whole and its use to refer to a non-Greek language as an attack on the national identity of the Greek Macedonians is interpreted. In the foreign Slavic these varieties are also known as Aegean Macedonian, in the Bulgarian Slavic they are just like the rest of Macedonian varieties counted for Bulgarian.
Through emigration younger speakers live in Slovenia, Canada, USA, Australia, Hungary and Germany.
Until 1944, the Slavic dialects were classified in the territory of today's Macedonia in Slavic as Bulgarian. Thus, dramas works before that time known, which were published in some of these dialects. The political decision to form the Macedonian language was adopted in 1934 by the Communist International. So some Macedonian dialects were first systematically to the Constitution of non-fiction in journalism of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia ( CPY ) and the partisan movement used in the first half of the 1940s. Thus, the expansion of the Macedonian began to default language.
Was in the southern Serbian monastery Sv On August 2, 1944. Prohor Pčinjski the Anti-Fascist Council of the People's Liberation of Macedonia founded on the initiative of the CPY. As one of its first actions, the Council decided to introduce the " Macedonian language" and proclaimed this in the Republic of Macedonia ( within the Yugoslav Federation ) to the " official" language. The Council established the following three time a philological commissions to draw up a Macedonian literary language. Here, the Cyrillic alphabet of the Macedonian oriented mostly on the model of the Cyrillic alphabet of the Serbian, which was also codified in 1945. On 5 May 1945, the Commission issued its third final decision on the alphabet and spelling known, which was published the next day in the newspaper Nova Makedonija. The Macedonian literary language was created as an exclusion of Bulgarian and so the vocabulary of the Slavic dialects in the territory of the Socialist Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia was purified in the following period of the Bulgarismen. Nevertheless, it remains most closely related to the Bulgarian today.
In the context of nation-building in Macedonia by the AVNOJ ( Communist Party of Yugoslavia ) and the development of a national consciousness in the SJR Macedonia to develop their own writing codified language played an important role. However, it came in the wake of this development on language politically motivated conflicts, especially with Bulgaria (including in the context of the interpretation of the common historical heritage ), Serbia and Greece ( " name dispute " ) and the non-recognition of the Macedonian minority living there
The Macedonian is a fully equipped, armed for utterances in all areas of life standard language today. Although an understanding with the speakers of Bulgarian is easily possible, both idioms are now regarded as separate languages. Since the Macedonian literary language on the dialects of the region is based around the cities Kičevo, Bitola, Struga and Ohrid in western Macedonia, Bulgarian, however, mostly focus on the dialects of eastern Bulgaria, the difference between Macedonian and Bulgarian in the written language is larger than in the spoken language. In fact, a dialect continuum between the two languages determine in the starting only a few isoglosses near the state border, so that the dialects of eastern Macedonia the dialects of western Bulgaria are more similar than, say, the dialects in the region of Ohrid or Skopje and a language- immanent dialect boundary the Bulgarian can not be drawn.
Overview of the Macedonian dialects
- Western and central dialects Ohrid - Prespa Group Ohrid dialect
- Struga dialect
- Vevčani - Radοžda dialect
- Upper Prespa dialect
- Lower Prespa dialect
- Debar dialect
- Reka dialect
- Golo Brdo dialect Drimkol -
- Galičnik dialect
- Crna Gora dialect skopska
- Gora dialect
- Upper Polog dialect
- Low - Polog dialect
- Prilep - Bitola dialect
- Kičevo - Poreče dialect
- Skopje - Veles dialect
- Korca dialect
- Kostour dialect
- Nestram - Kostenar dialect
- Northern group Kumanovo dialect
- Kratovo dialect
- Kriva Palanka dialect
- Ovce Pole dialect
- Stip - Kocani dialect
- Strumica dialect
- Tikveš Mariovo dialect
- Maleševo - Pirin dialect
- Solun - Voden dialect
- Ser - Drama - Lagadin Nevrokop dialect
The table above and the card include all indigenous South Slavic dialects of the geographical region of Macedonia. On a structural level language is a dialect continuum, both to the north adjacent Torlakischen dialects of Serbian and to the east adjacent Bulgarian dialects.
The spoken on Bulgarian territory varieties of Maleševo - Pirin dialect and the Ser - Drama - Lagadin - Nevrokop dialect are classified by Macedonian dialectologists as macedonian, but as they are long covered by the Bulgarian standard language, they are classified as Bulgarian dialects.
The Slavic varieties of the Greek part of Macedonia can be neither clearly assign clearly the Macedonian Bulgarian according to sociolinguistic criteria for the most part. The card is in this field in the rest of the state from the beginning of the 20th century, as represented in the works of the Macedonian and Bulgarian dialectologists mostly due to older sources and voice recordings with living in these countries emigrants from Greek Macedonia. Due to the political and social changes of the 20th century ( assimilation and forced relocation ), this description can not be transmitted to the present without further notice.
The dialect of Gorani in southwestern Kosovo is considered ( as Bulgarian, and also by some Bulgarian dialectologists ) only since recently by some Macedonian dialectologists as Macedonian. He was in time of Yugoslavia ( and is still at least partially ) covered by the Serbian variant of Serbo-Croatian and was traditionally counted for torlakischen dialect group of Serbo-Croatian.
Examples of grammatical differences between the western and eastern dialects
The Macedonian alphabet was 1944/45, developed by two orthography commissions established by the Anti-Fascist Council of the People's Liberation of Macedonia. These are predominantly oriented in the Serbian alphabet of Vuk Stefanović Karadžić.
From the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet, it is distinguished by the different shape of the letters ѓ (Serbian ђ or đ in Latin script ) and ќ (Serbian ћ or ć ) and ѕ by the additional letter ( the sound [ dz ] represents the non-existing in the Serbian ). The Macedonian alphabet has 31 letters, therefore ( the Serbian 30).
Previously, Macedonian varieties in the 1930s and the first half of the 1940s had been written with individual adaptations of the Serbian or Bulgarian Cyrillic alphabet.
With the Bulgarian Macedonian shares many of the non-typical for Slavic languages features, eg the complete elimination of the genitive, postponierte affixes as an article or object doubling.
The definiteness is realized in Macedonian by postponierte affixes similar to the Swedish and congruent according to gender and number. In the definiteness is expressed in addition also (unmarked, near, far) a three -tiered distance to the speakers from.
Example of the re-enactment of the definite article: книга ( a ) book, книгата the book нова книга ( a ) new book, новите книги the new books
In Macedonian there as well as in the Bulgarian Slavonic for the atypical Renarrativ.
The normal word order of the Macedonian is subject - verb - object.
In Macedonian, there are many loan words from neighboring languages such as from Serbian, but also for historical reasons, many Turkish loanwords, as well as words that are borrowed from Russian and German. In recent times, there are also many anglicisms.
The textbook of the Macedonian language by Wolf Oschlies is one of the few German textbooks to this language. 2009 paperback published book2 German - Macedonian for Beginners: A book in 2 languages and gibberish, Macedonian word for word.