Windows Server 2008
Windows NT 3.5 Windows NT 3.51 Windows NT 4.0 Windows 2000 Windows XP Windows Server 2003 Windows XP Professional x64 Windows Vista Windows Server 2008 Windows 7 Windows Server 2008 R2 Windows 8 Windows Phone 8 Windows RT Windows Server 2012
Microsoft Windows Server 2008 is an operating system from Microsoft. It is the successor of Microsoft Windows Server 2003.
On 27 February 2008, Microsoft released the operating system along with Microsoft Visual Studio 2008. Previously, the software had reached RTM status on February 4, 2008. It was originally planned to publish the Microsoft SQL Server 2008 on the same date, but this date was postponed.
- 4.1 Network Access Protection
- 4.2 firewall
- 4.3 BitLocker
- 4.4 CNG Cryptography Next Generation
- 4.5 Read only domain controller RODC
- 4.6 Isolated DC Strategies
History of development
Windows Server 2008 was known as Windows Server code-named Longhorn until May 16, 2007, when at WinHEC, the final product name was announced by Bill Gates.
Windows Server 2008 is available in the following editions:
- Windows Server 2008 Standard Edition (32 - and 64- bit)
- Windows Server 2008 Enterprise Edition (32 - and 64- bit)
- Windows Server 2008 Datacenter Edition (32 - and 64- bit)
- Windows Web Server 2008 ( 32 - and 64- bit)
- Windows Server 2008 for Itanium -based Systems (. Recent IA -64 version, the regular support for Itanium is expected to expire on July 9, 2013 - extended support to July 10, 2018)
On 12 November 2008 further versions for small and medium-sized companies have been released:
- Windows Small Business Server 2008 Standard and Premium
- Windows Essential Business Server 2008 Standard and Premium
In addition, the Windows Server 2008 can be installed as a text-based core server, the only file - server functions or infrastructure support (as of May 2007).
For the management of server 2008, several modes are available. The Server Manager is a Microsoft Management Console version 3.0. About the Server Manager roles and functions can be centrally managed. In addition, the Server Manager provides an overview of the system status and resulting notifications of components through an embedded event viewer. The Server Manager summarizes so together several management tools Server 2003. In addition, features and roles can be installed and uninstalled via the manager.
The server can also be managed directly from the embedded MMC and snap-ins.
Another possibility is the integrated WMI interface. The host provides functions for management via script.
The server can be text-based administration via PowerShell. cmd.exe and batch is still supported. About PowerShell scripts can also be present (. Bat, vbs, perl ) reuse.
Active Directory is used for managing resources and users. To the already known DCO types an RODC has been added. The RODC is a host with reduced functionality. This domain controller is read-only and can thus be used in unsecured areas, as in case of theft only cached password hashes can be found on the hardware. In RODCs passwords are not managed. For writing functions of the members must connect to a regular DCO. Delegate for the administration of the RODC can be distributed to groups and domain users. To enable users without domain administrator can manage the RODC.
Comprehensive password and lockout policies can be distributed within a domain. This reduces the number of required domains is minimized in a network.
In Server 2008 Terminal Services is extended by some additional functions:
- Resolutions up to 1920 x 1200
- Multiple monitors
- Windows Portable Devices
- Microsoft Point of Service for. NET
- RemoteApp deployment of a program as a terminal session
By functionalities local and remote applications can be used on mixed guest computer.
With Hyper- V, Microsoft provides a virtualization environment that allows IT organizations to virtualize complete server systems running Windows Server 2008. Hyper- V makes its own management tools, the organization of both the physical and virtual resources. The Hyper- V environment is offered with Windows Server 2008. But Microsoft is planning a separate Hyper-V Server version that can be easily integrated into existing IT environments. Is also found in the Windows Server 2012 virtualisation environment that is installed and managed in both versions via Server role in Server Manager.
Hyper- V isolated while the guest systems completely from the host system. However, this requires a virtualization- capable motherboard and processor. The system can be connected this task at runtime variable resources. This hardware resources such as memory, processors and processor time and network adapters can be dynamically adjusted at run time to the requirements of the host system.
Hyper- V supports all major processor architectures (x86, x86 -64). A guest can get assigned up to four processors.
Virtual Server on Hyper- V support any exclusive assignment of PCI and USB devices.
Through the pass -through to local memory and high-load systems can be mapped into a guest.
Windows Server 2008 is the first Windows operating system that comes with Microsoft's object-oriented command line interpreter using Windows PowerShell. PowerShell is based on. NET Framework version 2.0 and provides a modern alternative to the well-known command line tool cmd.exe and Windows Script Host is, further, the user fully available. Similar to other operating system shells, such as Unix shells and the cmd.exe already mentioned, the user can interactively execute commands at a command line and link together using pipes. Complex Shell scripts can be written in the specially designed PowerShell Scripting Language.
The data throughput rate could be increased under Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista through a redesign of the communication stack. For connections between a server 2008 and Vista an increase by a factor of 3 could be measured compared to Server 2003 and XP SP2.
The cluster model of Server 2003 was transferred to the Failover Clustering in Server 2008. This cluster nodes can be in different subnets. The failover cluster supports GPT with a maximum of 128 partitions, and can manage 18 exabytes. The failover clustering can be used only in the Enterprise and Datacenter Edition. In addition, the cluster via NFS can be used for Unix-like clients. The cluster supports the dynamic addition of resources at runtime.
Network Load Balancing
The network load balancing distributes the load across multiple systems. Server 2008 supports both IPv4 and IPv6.
The IIS 7.0 is designed as a web server for static and dynamic web pages, and supports both HTML, SSL, as well as PHP.
Network Access Protection
The integrated Network Access Protection Network Access Protection ( NAP) continually assesses the states of the clients. This allows an unsafe access or condition of the clients are discovered and the power to back up. The NAP policies further prevent a client that violates these guidelines can connect to the server. NAP supports IPsec, VPN, DHCP, TS Gateway, and IEEE 802.1X connections.
The built-in firewall supports IPsec as well as the guidelines for the firewall settings in the new administrative snap- in. This overlapping settings are easily recognizable by a common front-end.
For the encryption of the data Server 2008 has the BitLocker tool integrated. BitLocker is suitable for the safety of data in companies by Sarbanes -Oxley and HIPAA. In this case, the entire system is encrypted. Components that are started before the operating system kernel, are secured by an integrity test.
CNG Cryptography Next Generation
Server 2008 support CNG, a developed cryptographic applications for developers SDK. It is the direct successor of the CryptoAPI and supports popular Suite B algorithms and ECC.
Read only domain controller RODC
The domain controller server 2008 implements an additional controller structure in the form of an RODC. The RODC is stores a read-only controller of passwords. It can optionally be managed by additional roles. Thus, a use in a safety- critical range.
Isolation strategies DC
Through the insulation feature domains may be managed and resources isolated. Thus, a logical network within a physical network to be created completely isolated. These two insulation options are implemented: The domain isolation prevents access from clients outside the isolated domain, are used in the server isolation, controlled via IPsec, only accesses from registered clients admitted.
Servers that do not require GUI can be installed as a Core server. In this case, a minimal system is installed, which is administered by a text-based interface. There are only included features needed. The installation option is primarily intended to be installed in the parent partition of Hyper- V hosts. Originally no managed code support was, however, the. NET Framework 4 for core functionality has been added to the Service Pack 1 of Server 2008 R2. The Server Core has no upgrade path.
- Minimum: 1 GHz ( x86 processor ) or 1.4 GHz ( x64 processor )
- Recommended: 2 GHz or higher
- Minimum: 512 MB RAM
- Recommended: 2 GB RAM or more
- Maximum ( 32- bit systems): 4GB (Standard Edition, Web Edition) or 64 GB ( Enterprise and Datacenter Editions)
- Maximum ( 64- bit systems): 32 GB (Standard Edition, Web Edition) or 2 TB ( Enterprise Edition, Datacenter Edition, and Itanium- based systems)
- Minimum: 10 GB free
- Recommended: 40 GB (full install) or 10 GB ( Server Core Installation)
- DVD -ROM drive,
- Super VGA (800 x 600) or higher resolution monitor
- Microsoft Mouse or compatible pointing device
Technical specification of the editions