Anatolian beyliks

The term Beylik (Turkish: sing Beylik, pl Beylikler; osm: .. Singing بكلك Beglik, pl بكلكلر Beğlikler. .. ) Denotes the Turkish principalities, which had formed in the 11th century in Anatolia on the borders of the Byzantine Empire.

After the collapse of the Sultanate of Rum - Seljuks in Asia Minor was divided up to the early 16th century in various Beyliks ( principalities ) from the beginning of the 14th century ( 1308).

After the Rum Seljuk dynasty had in 1235 recognized the upper hand of the Mongol Ilkhanate, and was defeated in 1243 at the Battle of Köse Dağ against the Ilkhanate, Turkish tribes migrated increasingly to Central and Western Anatolia and founded their principalities. Here began in the 1260ern the Turkish resistance to the Mongol siege of Anatolia. Under these circumstances also, the Ottoman Empire was established. From 1261 Anatolia was divided into two areas of power. (see figure) in Eastern Anatolia ruled by the Mongol Ilkhanid and their dependent Turkish Rum Seljuk Turks in Western Anatolia ruled the autonomous Turkish principalities. All principalities founded in the 13th century by the Seljuk Sultan had as Bey / Emir appointed. To assume the title of Sultan, would mean a rebellion against the Seljuk Sultanate. The principalities can be divided into those that have emerged on the western border of the Seljuk Empire (including the principalities of Eşrefoğulları, the Hamidoğulları, the Sahipataoğulları, the Germiyanoğulları, the Çobanoğulları, the Karamanoğulları ), and those caused by the conquest of Byzantine territory (eg Menteşe, Aydınoğulları, Saruchaniden, Karesi, Osman ).

First, the area between the Ankara - Aksaray - line stood up to Erzurum by the year 1336 under the administration of Ilhani - Governor General. After the weakening of the dynasty by infighting the Beyliks in Anatolia received their full independence. In addition, there newly established Beyliks came to the former possessions of the Ilhan - Governor General.

The Ottomans were one of these principalities, which were founded in the area of Eskişehir and Bursa. The principality under the rule of the Ottoman dynasty was able to conquer through strategic marriages and successful campaigns of the other principalities. Thus, the political unit was manufactured in the west of Asia Minor.

During the reign of Beyliks rapid development, the Turkish language and culture underwent in Anatolia. During this period, the Turkish language in science and literature was used. She sat down as an official language in the Principalities by. In the Beyliks new universities and medicine emerged Progress.

Gültehri, Nesimi († 1404) and Ahmedi ( 1325-1412 ) are the most prominent Turkish-language poets of the 15th century.

List of principalities

After the Battle of Manzikert

After the Battle of Köse Dağ