Geoffrey II, Count of Anjou

Gottfried II (French: Geoffroy, closely Geoffrey; * October 14, 1006 or 1007; † November 14, 1060. ), Called Martel, or the Hammer, was from 1040 until his death a Count of Anjou, and from 1032 - 1056 Count of Vendôme. He came to the first house of Anjou ( Ingelgeriden ) and was the only son of Count Fulk III. Nerra and his second wife Hildegard († 1046 ).

The first mention of Godfrey comes from the Gesta Normannorum Ducum ". Gottfried, Count of Anjou, called Martel, a treacherous man in every respect, of his neighbors often inflicted abuse and unbearable pressure "

Like his father Gottfried was of military nature and was throughout his life, with all its neighbors, including particularly Count Theobald III. implicated by Blois and Duke William II of Normandy in military conflicts.


First years and the fight against Blois

Even as a ten year old took Gottfried in the wake of Count Herbert I. watchdog of Maine in the victorious battle of Pontlevoy against the house of Blois part. His father Fulk III. Nerra Gottfried involved still own lifetime of ruling the territory of the Counts of Anjou, while there was but why Gottfried was forced out of Anjou to seek a political field of activity several times to friction between the two. 1032 Gottfried took the struggle for the throne of King Henry I. against his mother and younger brothers from around the county to seize Vendôme, whose weak Count Fulk the gosling he expelled from there. To secure his rule in Vendôme Gottfried founded the Abbey of Sainte- Trinité. After Gottfried used the rift his wife Agnes of Burgundy with their stepson Duke William VI. of Aquitaine to expand his power in Aquitaine. He beat William in autumn 1033 in a battle near Montcontour and captured this. He urged the Duke, he held captive to 1036, in addition to conferring upon it the Saintonge where he also strengthened by a monastic foundation in Saintes ( Abbaye aux Dames ) his rule. From now on, Gottfried should exert the dominant influence in Aquitaine.

After the death of his father in June 1040 Gottfried took over now also the ancestral homeland of his family and came immediately with their arch-rivals from Blois to each other. Count Theobald III. of Blois supported the 1041 revolt of Prince Odo against King Henry I., for the turn Gottfried party seized. The king withdrew Theobald County Tours and transferred these Gottfried who invaded with his army in Theobalds territory and took up more than one-year siege of Tours. On August 21, 1044 Gottfried won the decisive battle of Nouy where he could capture his enemy Theobald, this had it down definitively on the Touraine in favor of Godfrey without.

Imperial policy

The Godfrey's relationship with his king should progressively worsen in the coming years. To this end the marriage in 1043 of his step-daughter Agnes with the Roman King Henry III should. help was probably driven by Gottfried wife. This marriage should give priority to strengthening the position of the empire in Burgundy, where the bride possessed by her mother a large family attachment. But the French nobility possibly should be brought closer to the Roman king by this marriage, as the French king was suspected of the rebellious Duke of Lorraine Gottfried III. to support the Bearded. 1046 Gottfried traveled with his wife to the Saxon king Goslar at the court of his step- son in law and accompanied him to Italy where he. During the Synod of Sutri and at the coronation of Henry III participated for the emperor in Rome.

Furthermore, King Henry I of France looked harassed by Godfrey access to the County Maine. There Gottfried 1048 had his long-time opponent Gervais de Bellême, Bishop of Le Mans, jailed because of this marriage of Count Hugo IV of Maine with a sister Theobald III. mediated by Blois. For Gottfried in 1050 was occupied by a council held at Reims with the excommunication was lifted in May 1051 after the release of the bishop. The Bishop then moved to Normandy, the young Duke William II he could move to intervene in Maine.

Fight against King and Normans

To build a strong counterweight to Gottfried now supported the king the young Duke of Normandy William II in the battle for control of his duchy, while Gottfried sought a closer alliance with Guillaume II de Talvas Bellême. 1049 attacked the King and the Duke, while Wilhelm territories conquered in Maine marched the king with his army until shortly before Angers where he took the stronghold Mouliherne. In return, Gottfried took possession after the death of Hugh IV of Maine in 1051 the town of Le Mans and secured the final rule over this county by appointed himself guardian of the young Count Herbert II, this was, however, to Rouen to William of Normandy fled. After Gottfried beat his rebellious vassals Guerin whose castle he Craon to Robert of Nevers (gen.: le Bourguignon ) forgave continue Gottfried took over control of Alençon and Domfront which he summed up in Normandy foot.

1052, the situation Godfrey should change abruptly after Duke William II of Normandy married, despite the threat of excommunication, a daughter of the powerful Counts of Flanders and thus emancipated from his royal patron. Until August 1052 at the latest, King Henry I and Gottfried reconciled, handed in a document related to the uprising against the Talous William of William II of Normandy. This merger was further facilitated by the separation from his wife of Godfrey, which Gottfried also the deteriorating relationship of France to the Kingdom of invoice contributed since 1051 to King Henry had married Anne of Kiev and thus joined in an imperial enemy camp.

Struggle for Maine

Duke William II of Normandy now turned against Domfront, the winter 1052 about resisted the reconquest. At this time, William of Talou withdrew from the siege and began his rebellion. Duke William rapid conquest of Alençon and Domfront after sales Gottfried from Normandy back to Maine. However, Gottfried remained the mainstay of the king, especially after his arch rival Theobald III. had in 1054 paid homage to the Emperor of Blois. Late January, early February 1054 attacked and Gottfried Heinrich to the Normandy and walked together down the Seine toward Rouen. As an Army Corps, which was under the command of Henry's brother Odo, was defeated in the Battle of Mortemer, whereupon Henry broke off the campaign.

In the next few years, the debate shifted with an offensive Duke William to Maine, Mont Barbet and Ambrières brought there in his power. William was reconciled immediately after Mortemer with the king and will presumably get his, at the expense of Anjou, made ​​conquests in Maine confirmed. Gottfried took this Agreement not sit down and teamed up yet in 1054 with the gentlemen Geoffrey of Mayenne who felt threatened by the Normans in Ambrières. The siege of the castle but failed after a successful relief of Wilhelm Gottfried in the escape beat and captured the Herrem of Mayenne. This has been forced to acknowledge the Duke of Normandy as vassals. Nevertheless, Gottfried consolidated his rule over Le Mans in 1055 where he could use the Abbot of Saint- Serge in Angers, Vougrin, as a bishop.

, " Burning, prepare for revenge for the insult which he had inflicted on the Duke, ... Gottfried, Count of Anjou, thus a large arms for a renewed campaign in Normandy " commissioned in 1057 King Henry ( Gesta ). Joint efforts urged Duke William on the defensive; he withdrew, the invaders penetrated deep into the Normandy. In the transition of the river Dives did the battle of Varaville when Henry and Gottfried were surprised during translation of the flood. The attack on the divided army brought William a win, finally withdrew after Heinrich Gottfried and from Normandy. An attack of Gottfried's stepson William VII of Aquitaine in 1058 could be averted before the castle Saumur.

At the end of his life Gottfried went to the monastery of Saint -Nicolas in Angers at where he died on 14 November 1060 and was buried.

Marriages and succession

In his first marriage was Gottfried since January 1, 1032 married to Agnes of Burgundy ( † 1068 ). This was a daughter of Count Otto William of Burgundy and widow of Duke William V of Aquitaine. Gottfried separated by the years 1049 to 1052 from her.

His second wife was Adela, the daughter of " Count Odo " (presumably Odo II of Blois ), the third wife, Grace was the widow of Gottfried's henchman Berlay de Montreuil. His fourth and last known wife was Adelheid, called " le Teutonne " ( the German ). Had an unusual note in the cartulary of Ronceray that describes a dispute over a vineyard seized the Gottfried and his wives, concubines or better given the names of these women have survived.

Despite these marital escapades Gottfried died childless, was succeeded by his nephew Gottfried III. the bearded man.