STS -94 (English Space Transportation System) is the designation for a flight mission of the U.S. Space Shuttle Columbia ( OV -102) from NASA. The launch took place on 1 July 1997. It was the 85th Space Shuttle mission and the 23rd flight of the Space Shuttle Columbia.


  • James Halsell (4th space flight), Commander
  • Susan Still Kilrain - ( 2nd space flight), pilot
  • Janice Voss ( fourth space flight ), Mission Specialist
  • Donald Thomas ( fourth space flight), Mission Specialist
  • Michael Gernhardt ( third space flight), Mission Specialist
  • Roger Crouch ( second space flight), Payload Specialist, NASA Microgravity Space and Applications Division
  • Gregory Linteris ( second space flight), Payload Specialist, National Institute of Standards and Technology

This Department holds the record for the shortest time span between two missions (83 days between STS- 83 and STS -94 ).


  • Paul Ronney for Crouch and Linteris

Mission Description

Due to a defect in the energy system and the associated premature termination of the mission MSL 1 (STS- 83) of the very important for science flight was repeated. Planned 33 tests, of which 19 materials science Art These were included primarily experiments for the study of the physical properties of supercooled liquid mixtures and the combustion processes of solid and liquid materials and for the production of pure protein crystals. Everything was done under strictly controlled conditions. This mainly includes temperature and microgravity. Four single measurement systems determined the forces acting on the space shuttle tiny accelerations which are primarily caused by the movements of the astronauts. The materials science experiments were carried out with a large Isothermalofen and an electromagnetic heating system. Were examined, the sub-cooling, and rapid crystallization of metals and metal alloys, diffusion in liquid metals, metal alloys and semiconductors (measurement of the diffusion rate ), the mixing of the liquid metal in a solid state ( sintering experiment ) and thermo-physical properties of the supercooled liquid in detail. In addition, combustion processes of liquids have been investigated in the form of drops. They were concerned with interior currents flame shapes, temperature distributions, carbon monoxide - carbon emissions and processes, bring the flame to be extinguished. To atmospheric pressure, oxygen concentration and droplet size were varied ( 2-5 mm). Furthermore, the emergence and the stability of fireballs was investigated. Findings gained should be used to increase the efficiency of combustion processes in automotive engines. Likewise, but it is hoped that progress on the development of new methods for fire fighting.

In the EXPRESS Rack, a unit in which various experiments can be run automatically, two experiments were conducted. First, the physics of curved surfaces was examined. These experiments followed research on plant growth in microgravity. Other technical innovations were a multi-channel video transmission system and the use of a glove box for fluid physics in the middle deck of the Columbia. Here the contactless position change was tested by floating liquid drops. Without the influence of mechanical instruments, bubbles and droplets can be investigated in earnest.

After a successful, almost sixteen -day flight, the Columbia landed at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida.