In ski jumping technique refers to the way like a ski jumper performs his jump. In the more than 100 -year history of ski jumping, there were several different techniques for starting, takeoff, flight and landing attitude. The change in technology over the years for greater things could always be achieved.
- 5.1 The beginnings JAN - Boklöv (1986-1990)
- 5.2 The transition phase (from 1990) 5.2.1 Stephan ignition
- 5.2.2 Toni Nieminen
- 5.2.3 Team Austria
- 5.2.4 Team Japan
- 5.2.5 Team Germany
The beginnings (1800-1860)
Ski jumping at the end of the 18th century developed in the Norwegian county of Telemark in the Alpine exit. In the early snow-covered pile of wood and barn roofs was here over greater snow hill, jumped. Here, the so-called Optrakke style was used. In this style, the ski jumpers took about 15 feet above the take-off point, the start position. At startup, the knees were bent and brought the upper body slightly forward. Shortly before reaching the takeoff edge of the upper body was erected. At the end of the runway, the ski jumper was hurling into the air. During the flight phase, the legs were slightly tightened to make the leap seem as high as possible. With this style, lengths could be achieved by 10 to 20 meters. The first demonstrably measured step took place in 1808. Lieutenant Olaf Rye managed a jump of 9.5 meters above an artificially raised snow hill. 1860 reached the then most famous Sondre Norheim Springer, a carpenter and ski manufacturer from the Telemark village Morgedal, a width of 30.5 meters. This width was 33 years and can not be bettered.
Development in Norway (1860-1900)
Because the landing pressure is considerably lower at an oblique Aufsprungwinkel that Aufsprungzone of the plane was moved into the slope. This new situation has also been adapted to the jump style. It formed the so-called Sta - rak - style (static rak = upright). This was upright, jumped almost straight. This looked more elegant and therefore gave high marks for style, which at that time were much more important than the wide points. The only similarity with the Optrakke style was the spasmodic rowing with the arms in order to keep the balance. A balance entrained floor turned out to be more of a hindrance and lost its importance. In 1883 it was Torju Torjussen, the Telemark landing introduced after a jump in the Sta - rak - style that gives high rating grades to date. In the exit, the Springer brought a final telemark turn or scissors position of the skis finally to a halt.
Due to higher attitude scores, the troop - ned- style developed (peaks deep). This was similar to the Sta - rak - style, but the skis were guided here parallel to the slope, that is, the ski tips were down. However, the concomitant lowering of the ski tips had a severe impact on the jump distance from because of the increased resistance of the Springer noticeably slowed and thus took all the momentum it.
Development outside Norway (1900-1930)
Towards the end of the 19th century migrated many Norwegian ski jumper from the United States because they could earn money with ski jumping here. While in Norway the aesthetics, so the attitude scores, were at the forefront, the audience in the U.S. was more interested in wide open spaces and spectacular jumps than on a beautiful style. Between 1900 and 1930, 12 of the 20 established wide world records of Norwegian jumpers in North America were set up alone. Therefore, most advancements came in the following years from the U.S.. Here bigger jump systems were always built, which had an impact not only on the width, but also on the approach speed and the associated drag. Therefore, the jump style had to be re-adjusted. It sat from 1912 through the template style. In this style, the upper body was bent at the hips forward, so as to reduce drag in flight phase. First success with the new style had Jacob Tullin Thams which clearly outclassed the competition with its superior Olympic victory in 1924 in Chamonix. However, it was still rowing with the arms during the flight.
In the 30s, the Norwegian Birger Ruud was one of the best ski jumpers, what ( Olympic victory in 1932 and 1936, three-time world champion 1931-1937 ) showed in numerous titles. He jumped the so-called Königsberg style. This jump style was characterized by an extremely strong hip bend.
Another variant of the template style used Sepp Bradl who first reached the 100 - meter mark in Planica 1936. Instead of rowing, he stretched his arms forward.
Science and the fish - style (1950-1986)
Dr. Reinhard Straumann, a Swiss aircraft engineer and himself a former ski jumper, first recognized in 1924 on the jumps of Thams the decisive influence of the air as the supporting factor. Therefore, he worked from 1926 for the first time scientifically with the ski jumping and examined the relationship of speed, technique, posture and Schanze profiles. He led this, measurements at jumping events by Springer and experimented with dolls in the wind tunnel at the University of Göttingen. He published in 1926/27 his theory of the aerodynamically advantageous posture. He came to the realization that the knight can obtain the best lengths when he takes a flight attitude, which is modeled on the aerodynamic principle of airplane wings. His theory, however, was only 20 years later put into practice. In the 1940s he studied this style developed a theory with some jumpers. The technique varied while the severity of Körpervorstreckung and went partially into an almost stretched flight attitude. Next he instructed the jumpers after take-off to put their arms calmly to the body and to use the hands beside the barely bent hips like fins to control the flight. This technique was initially referred to as Danish style. Later she was called because of the posture, even drop - style fish or style. Another name is Finnish style because the new style of Straumann to a domain of some young Finnish Springer was. From 1953, when the first Four Hills Tournament, established itself this style, but some of the jumpers variant was until the 1960s further preferably with arms outstretched. In connection with the end of the 1980s entstandenem V- Style Fish style is now called the parallel style mostly due to the parallel Skihaltung. Until the 1980s, dominated, with slight variations, the stretched forward flight attitude with parallel ski control. Particularly noteworthy here are three ski jumper Toni Innauer, Matti Nykänen and Jens Weißflog. Toni Innauer jumped 1976 in Oberstdorf ski flying fish a week such a perfect style that he five times the best attitude score was 20. Matti Nykänen and Jens Weißflog dominated the 1980s and some exciting duels for victory.
Another new development took place in 1975 in the GDR instead. Here technician discovered that it is aerodynamically during start-up to take the arms backwards, instead of the current forward. These start-up attitude prevailed very quickly.
Modern crouch start
Development of the V- style ( from 1986)
The beginnings JAN - Boklöv (1986-1990)
January Boklöv, a hitherto almost unknown Swedish ski jumper who had relatively little success ( 45th in the World Cup 1986/87 with 12 points ) should, in the late 1980s revolutionized the ski jumping. Rather by accident, he recognized the advantage of a modified leg stance in 1986: To prevent a fall during a training jump failed, he took the legs apart and jumped by three to five meters, until he finally landed safely. After this observation he began this style, which was then called frog style or Boklöv scissors to exercise.
He jumped probably at the Four Hills Tournament in the 1986/87 season for the first time with the new unusual style. This style first came to reject because it did not meet the aesthetic demands. In particular, the Norwegians, including the President of the Ski Committee Torbjørn Yggeseth, resisted Boklövs new style, so he got for this break in style high deductions from the judges' marks ( instead of 19, or 19.5 points, only 14 or 15 points). These deductions he could not always make up for it by the correspondingly larger distances, which is reflected in the results from the 1986/87 season and 1987/88 shows ( 1986/87 best ranking 10 in Innsbruck, 1987/88, although two 2nd places Lahti, but also several times not in the top 30, ranked 10th overall result in the World Cup with 64 points ).
In the 1988/89 season to him, however, the real breakthrough came with his new style. The second World Cup event of the season in Lake Placid, he won the first time. He won a total of five World Cup events this season and was 18 times in the top ten jumpers what the overall World Cup victory meant. After this season, it was clear that the new style, which was now called V- style, was competitive to the classical style with parallel ski control. Already in the next season began some Springer with the conversion to the new style. This led to heated discussions in Springer, coach and official circles. Disadvantage of this style were still the high deductions from the judges' marks. January Boklöv however, could not benefit from his "invention" in the following years. So he finished at the end of the 1989/90 season after all, still ranked 14th with 80 World Cup points. Only at the beginning of this season, he was to be found even among the top ten. Towards the end of the season it mostly ranged not even for the second pass. In the following season he was only 50th in the overall World Cup.
It is noteworthy that in the early '80s, the Canadian Springer Steve Collins jumped an inverted V- style. This style was like a " snow plow stem turn ". Despite the high point deductions when keeping it in 1980 as Junior World Champion.
The transition phase (from 1990)
For most established Springer conversion to the V style was difficult. There were only eight jumpers who have won two styles. Ernst Vettori was the first jumper to have managed. He won on 2 December 1991 in Thunder Bay, his first of a total of two jumping in the V- style. The best result of these eight jumpers Jens Weißflog exhibit. Reach him after the conversion eleven victories. Dieter Thoma won at least five more times in the V- style. The other jumpers who have won in both styles are the Italians Roberto Cecon, the Austrian Andreas fields ( four wins ), Heinz Kuttin and Stefan Horngacher and the Finn Ari -Pekka Nikkola. All other jumpers who won in the V- style later, have never previously won in the same style, or learned about before their World Cup debut.
The fact that the V- style revolution has caused in ski jumping, the following examples show:
One of the first jumper, which was relatively quickly surrounded on the new style of young Swiss ski jumper Stephan ignition, which was in 1990 made his debut in the World Cup.
1989 Stephan ignition was still on the road in the European Cup, as the New Year's competition in Garmisch -Partenkirchen, he noticed the unusual scissors style of Jan Boklöv. The following summer, he began with youth coach Robert Rathmayr the changeover to the V- style. Ignition was one of the first stylists under the V- jumpers with a very good feeling of flight and a safe technique mastery.
In the first World Cup season 1990 he landed after a few jumping on place 8 and later even 3rd place This meant the 21th place in the overall World Cup. The following years were the most successful for Stephan ignition. He was ranked 3 and 5 in the World Cup. As then eased his achievements, Stephan ignition began to radically reduce its weight. After the end of his career he made public attention to this new, caused by the V- style ski jumping problem. His criticism was partly triggered the rule change that brought the 2004 Body mass index as a measure of the ski lengths.
Probably the best single example of a ski jumper, which benefited by the new V- Style is the Finn Toni Nieminen. The then 16-year old began in the summer of 1991 in order to reorganize its jump style and then dominated the 1991/ 1992. On 1 December 1991, he won, then internationally still completely unknown, the first World Cup competition of the season in Thunder Bay. This season, he won a total of eight World Cup competition and went as the top favorite for the Olympic Games in Albertville. There he won gold on the large hill and led the Finnish team to victory. Another success was the overall win in the Four Hills Tournament. After this season, his performances were after. This was partly due to weight and growth problems, but also that its success is now almost the entire world leaders adopted the new V- style. A surprise success was Toni Nieminen yet, as he was the first Springer was a jump over 200 meters in Planica on March 17, 1994 ( was previously Andreas Goldberger overthrown at 202 m).
The first national team that completely Ground surrounded on the V - style early on, was the Austrian. After the success of Jan Boklöv 1989/90, the Austrian coach asked Toni Innauer Dr. Wolfram Müller from the Institute of Medical Physics and Biophysics, Graz therefore, to examine the advantages and disadvantages of the V- style. Since these studies showed that the Springer receive 26 to 28 percent more lift by the new V- style, which meant for greater things, turned Innauer before winter 1991/92 his entire team around. Even established athletes like Andreas Felder, Ernst Vettori and Heinz Kuttin had to relearn. Then, the Austrian team dominated the season, which at 5 of 7 possible Olympic medals and placements of Springer showed ( Rathmayr and fields 2nd and 3rd place in the World Cup, Höllwarth and Rathmayr 2nd and 3rd place in the Four Hills Tournament, five Austrians in the top ten of the overall World Cup, only Toni Nieminen was better). This was facilitated, however, by the fact that agreement had been reached before the season, only 0.5 deducted instead of the usual 1.5 points for a jump in the V- style.
After the great success of the Austrians in the 1991/92 season the triumph of the V- style was unstoppable. Now the rest of the nations represented by and by their style jump to:
The Japanese jump Association stipulated that jumped in the 1992 Olympics in Albertville exclusively in the V- style. Noriaki Kasai, who had shortly before resisted a change, was the end of February for the first time on the podium and finished the season with the previously best series of a Japanese knight. Kazuyoshi Funaki turned around until the summer of 1992. In the 1992/93 season he stabilized his style and was at the end of Japanese runners in his age group (then not yet in the World Cup ). In the season 1994/95 he wrote ski history when he won his first World Cup competition. The following day, he was sixth. The first modification of the V- style took place in 1994 in Albertville also by the Japanese. Takanobu Okabe was one of the first jumper who carried out the so-called flat V- style. This style is characterized by a more open "V" and an extreme body template. Wind tunnel tests confirmed that this position is more aerodynamic. However, the FIS prevented in the same year this extreme jump style by a regulation of the binding position. Later, the extreme V style by Springer as Jakub Janda and Bjørn Einar Romøren was applied again.
The German Springer lined up to very late. One of the first was Christof Duffner, who still in 1992 the V- style learned in order to - to qualify for the Olympic Games - with success. At this time, Dieter Thoma and Jens Weißflog jumped still the old style and were therefore no chance in Albertville. After the successes of the Austrians and other Springer finally realized she too, that a change was inevitable and trained prior to the 1993/94 season the new V- style. Although this change only them was very hard, both still won later successes in the new style ( Olympic victory Weißflog, podiums for Thoma at the Olympics, World Cup and the tour ).
Advantages and Disadvantages of V- style
Through the V- attitude flying the Springer because of the greater air resistance considerably slower than if they keep the skis close together in front of the body. At the same time, they achieved more lift. Thus, the Springer glided like a base jumper with wingsuit at a shallower angle to the valley.
However, the V- style also brought problems. The Springer flew with the new technology, only four feet high further down the slope and much more. If you had not adjusted the Aufsprunghänge, the Springer would be rows jumped over the critical point, which would have led to a higher Aufsprungdruck and thus higher risk of injury. The jump hills were so altered and so the flatter, but longer trajectory adjusted. Furthermore, the trajectory has been adjusted by reducing the takeoff angle.
But there were other problems. Thus, it was observed, for example, in the 1993/94 season ten cases of sudden forward rotations in flight. This meant that many jumpers, including very good as Andreas Goldberger and Werner Rathmayr rushed. Therefore Wolfram Müller, who had previously performed physical examinations for Anton Innauer and the Austrians, tasked to go to these phenomena on the ground. There extensive series of measurements have been made in the wind tunnel and the flights of many Springer examined carefully. It was found that the higher buoyancy forces, in combination with staggered backward linkages to unstable attitudes. Wolfram Müller struck thus before the Vorderskilänge to regulate (see also "flat V- style " in "Team Japan" section). The result of this rule change was that in the following season, only a fall was recorded.
Further studies, for example on a Andi- Goldberger model or a 76 Anton Innauer model showed that today the air forces acting on a knight, are up to 80 % larger than at ski jumping Innauers times. So today, the importance of the air phase has increased significantly. The sharp jump is no longer the dominant factor for large ranges. The art of the jump is today is as fast as possible to get into an aerodynamic position for the flight and here take as much speed from the start. Another important factor is the weight of the jumper. Already 1 kg less take 1 to 2 meters jump distance more. Therefore the jumpers were in the late 1990s, all of them easily ( Christof Duffner 60 kg at 182 cm; Andreas Goldberger 56 kg at 170 cm). Through many discussions about weight issues at the ski jumpers ( anorexia ), the ski length is regulated since 2004 by the Body Mass Index. This meant that many jumpers had clearly put on weight in order to jump ideal ski lengths can.