The Pukaskwa National Park (French Parc national du Canada Pukaskwa, English Pukaskwa National Park of Canada) is a Canadian national park north of the province of Ontario. It is the largest National Park in the province. The nearest village is in the north of Marathon (Thunder Bay District ). The only road access to the park is in the north on Highway 627 in the north of the Pic River empties into Lake Superior
The 1878 km ² large park was established in 1971 and 1983 and is located on the eastern shore of Lake Superior, where it stretches along 80 km. Although it is known that the name of Indian origin, but the meaning unclear. The park represents the border area between the region of the Great Lakes and the Canadian Shield. The flora is largely dominated by boreal forest. Animals such woodland caribou, black bear, moose, Canadian lynx and wolves. The original caribou herd comprised around 200 animals, but it was by hunting and by ecological changes that were due to industrial use and logging, decimated by the end of the 70's to 30, by 2007 even on 5 animals. 2010, there were 16 animals again.
At the mouth of the Pic River began in 1957 the first archaeological investigations in 1960 and 1961, the site († 1978) was led by J. Norman Emerson excavated by the University of Toronto. A warehouse from the time left at one point to prove in 1700, at the deeper site were radiocarbon datings an age of 962 AD - 80 years. With Anishinabe is expected in general from about 1500. Another excavation of 1964 was dedicated to the former trading post of the Hudson's Bay Company, which was developed in the 1780s. Founder was the free fur trader Gabriel Cotte. At this time the existing there Anishinabe village was abandoned. 1799-1821 was one of the items of the North West Company, the HBC, which entertained him until 1888. 1838 Jesuit missionaries came to the region in 1914 an Indian reservation was established, most of the members, slightly more than 500, the Ojibways of the Pic River First Nation live in the now.
1917-1933 exploited the Lake Superior Paper Company from the area at the mouth of Pukaskwa River. 1937 began the Ontario Paper Company, also to timber harvesting on the pic and the Black River, which continued until 1964. By 1946, the sea lamprey began to penetrate into the upper lake and the lakes of the Pukaskwa, and displaced native species, such as the American lake trout.
1986 signed Friends of the Pukaskwa ( Friends of Pukaskwa ) based in Marathon signed a cooperation agreement with the park authority. The Company is a private club that has dedicated itself to the protection of the area. In addition, they clarify the significance of the park and provide training, members of the Circle of Friends will receive an e -mail magazine Wildwinds. Even students of Lakehead University in Thunder Bay look at the Circle of Friends for educational purposes.
Since the management plan of 1995, the Anishinabe Camp, which is, precisely, the Anishinabe and Métis should clarify for the park, the importance of the indigenous First Nations who are now involved in park management and exhibited works at the Visitor Information Centre was established. Numerous traces of their presence can be found in the park, such as the enigmatic Pukaskwa pits, small pits, which may have arisen 1100-1600, whose age was estimated but also to 5000 from 10,000 years. The pits were beaten in stone and are 1 to 2 m long and 1.5 m deep. Whether they served as storage pits, camp for hunting or spiritual purposes, it is unclear indigenous Older think that the latter is the most likely. They have been researched since 1949 and since 1971 are under protection. Proddy Goodchild, a member of the local Pic River First Nation, is considered the best connoisseurs of the park, which he visited since childhood. He worked on development of the main trail with. The Council of Elders offered to park visitors could also come for their annual powwow.
In addition, the only camp in the north of the park was expanded. In addition, multimedia presentations and source, cooperation with schools in Northern Ontario, where most visitors come, studies on the complex ecosystem and a few trails. Two of them give you a brief insight into the region, one more suitable for experts only and requires appropriate equipment, sufficient about for two weeks. The road leads 60 km along the rugged coast. There are also canoe routes along the coast and the rivers Pukaskwa and White River.
Rivers of the park are:
- Pukaskwa River ( named after the park)
- Cascade River
- North Swallow River
- Swallow River
- White River
- Willow River