The Yoho National Park (English Yoho National Park of Canada, French Parc national du Canada Yoho ) is a 1310 km ² large Canadian National Park in the province of British Columbia on the main ridge of the Rocky Mountains. He is grouped with the Banff National Park, Jasper National Park and Kootenay National Park and the Provincial Parks Mount Assiniboine, Mount Robson and Hamber World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
The park is located in the high mountains of the Rocky Mountains and is bordered to the east by the Banff National Park and on the south by the Kootenay National Park. Across the park lead a railway line of the Canadian Pacific Railway and the Trans-Canada Highway, which runs from Golden over the Kicking Horse Pass to Lake Louise. The only church in the park is field with around 170 inhabitants. The highest mountain in the park is the 3567 meter high Mount Goodsir, next are 27 more mountains with an altitude of over 3000 meters in the park area. Many mountains are glaciers, the largest glacier are the Waputik Icefield and the Wapta Icefield in the north of the park. The park contains several mountain lakes, the most famous of the Lake O'Hara and Emerald Lake, and numerous waterfalls. The Takakkaw Falls are at a height of 254 meters, the third-highest waterfall in Canada.
The mountains in the park are part of the western of the three main ranges of the Rocky Mountains. During the orogeny the mountains were less unfolded, but raised in blocks. By the enclosed quartzite limestone and sandstone mountains are more resistant to erosion by glaciation and have received a rugged appearance. North-east of Field, between the mountains Mount Field and Mount Wapta, is the formation of the Burgess Shale, one of the most important fossil sites from the period of the middle Cambrian. The Burgess Shale fossils were found by over 120 marine animals from the time before 515 million years. This fossil site of international importance has significantly contributed to the Yoho National Park is counted as a World Heritage Site.
The park has a rough local mountain climate. The park is located on the western side of the Continental Divide and receives more precipitation than the more eastern areas of the Rocky Mountains. Average of 314 millimeters of precipitation as rain and 332 inches of snowfall annually Measured in Field. The average temperature in summer is 12.5 ° C, the maximum temperatures are at 20 ° C, from 1500 meters above sea level but is frost and snow not uncommon in summer. Minimum temperatures in winter are -15 ° C.
Flora and Fauna
The animal and plant life in Yoho National Park is not significantly different from that in Banff or Jasper. Grows at the lowest points in the park, as in Mount Revelstoke and Glacier National Park still places the rain forest of the temperate latitudes of North American hemlock, giant trees of life and hedgehog force sausages, but otherwise the forests in the valleys and lower mountain slopes exist in the park of Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir. At Lake O'Hara and other parts of the forest goes on with groups of subalpine larch trees in subalpine meadows. Often the coniferous forests have grown only bush shaped by outgoing avalanches, they are interspersed with berry bushes and wildflowers. Of the large mammals mountain goats are most common in the park. In addition, there are bighorn sheep, elk, mule deer and elk in the park area. In the woods at Lake O'Hara most grizzly bears live in the park. Due to high bear activity often trails are closed during the summer. At Hoodoo Campground frequently seen black bears, in the near Moor at the Deerlodge Cabin, there are large beaver dams.
Although the terrain was very difficult for the railway, the railway company decided to build the first transcontinental railway line over the Kicking Horse Pass. Due to time and cost reasons, the railway line was laid in 1884 in a straight line as possible, by the route of Field to the pass had an average slope of 4.5% to four times as high as that time was recommended. The operation of this steep track was expensive by adding locomotives, dangerous and led to many accidents. Therefore, it was at the beginning of the 20th century, started the construction of two helical tunnel, known as the Spiral Tunnels, which were completed in 1909 and the average slope of the line is reduced to 2.2%. Although the mountains represented a considerable obstacle to the railway, the railway company recognized the tourist potential of the landscape. To protect and to promote tourism, the landscape, the park was established in 1886 with the same time Lying west Glacier National Park as Mount Stephen Dominion Reserve. 1901, the park was renamed in Yoho, a word from the Cree language, which is considered as an expression of wonder or admiration. At the beginning and in the first half of the 20th century the railroad was booming tourism in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. The Canadian Pacific Railroad built roads to the attractions in the park and built several guest houses and facilities in the park, so in 1902 the Emerald Lodge, 1904 Deerlodge Cabin, 1908, the Twin Falls Tea House or 1926, the Lake O'Hara Lodge.
1962, the Trans - Canada Highway was opened, which also leads through the middle of the park and follows the rise to the Kicking Horse Pass the old railway line, which was abandoned after the opening of the Spiral Tunnels. The site is still owned by the Canadian Pacific Railroad, so that the state must pay royalties to the railway company. These are to be used for the four-lane expansion of the highway.
Because of its historical importance in the construction of the transcontinental railway in the Kicking Horse Pass, including the Spiral Tunnels 1971 on the National Historic Site was declared. The Burgess Shale was founded in 1981 as a World Heritage Site. 1984, the World Heritage Site by the National Park Yoho, Kootenay, Banff and Jasper in the Canadian Rockies and 1990 to the adjacent Provincial Park Mount Assiniboine, Mount Robson and Hamber has been extended.
Since 1985, the National Park is a development association, the Friends of Yoho Society, supported.
In the nearby village of Field within the park is the visitor center of the park. In the park area are two lodges, the Lake O'Hara Lodge and Emerald Lake Lodge. The five campgrounds in the park include 297 parking spaces. Through the Park offers more than 400 miles of hiking trails. The most important natural attractions in the park are
- The Wapta Falls, a 30 meter high and 100 meter wide waterfall of the Kicking Horse River. Not far from the case in 1858 the explorer James Hector was kicked by his horse. After this incident, the river and later the pass was called.
- At Hoodoo Creek Campground is the most impressive hoodoos are in the park area. The Hoodos are pyramids of Gletschertuff that are covered by flat stones and thus protected from erosion. On a nature trail to get to the Deerlodge Cabin, which was built in 1904 as the first supervision hut in the park.
- Natural Bridge is an arch, to the Kicking Horse River has gouged through a limestone layer, so that a natural bridge has formed.
- By Amiskwi Valley with its meadows leads a 24 km long forest path that can be traveled by mountain bike, until Amiskwi pass.
- The Emerald Lake is a lake fed by glacier water, which contained therein by rock flour has an exceptional coloring and a popular hiking destination is. Lakeside is the historic Emerald Lake Lodge.
- The Yoho Valley Road runs through a 13 km long narrow valley to the Takakkaw Falls, which are the third-highest waterfall in Canada with 254 meter free fall. From Takakkaw If an eight kilometer long footpath leads to the 30 meter high Laughing Falls and on to the Twin Falls, two parallel, 180 -meter high waterfalls. At the foot of Twin Falls is located at 1800 meters altitude the Twin Falls Tea House, a rustic wooden house which was built in 1908 by the railway company as a mountain hut and 1924 expanded. Since 1992, the house is protected as a National Historic Site.
- The Lower Spiral Tunnel View Point is a viewpoint on the famous Spiral Tunnels and the Yoho Valley, Yoho Glacier. Information boards explain the function of the tunnel.
- The mountain lake Lake O'Hara is a popular excursion and hiking destination. Is the historic Lake O'Hara Lodge On its banks. At the lodge, a well-developed network of trails begins. The lake is accessible on foot or by shuttle buses.