World Rally Car
As a World Rally Car WRC rally cars or briefly be described, which are structured according to a by the Fédération Internationale de l' Automobile ( FIA) prescribed regulations. The Regulations were introduced in 1997 for the World Rally Championship. World Rally Cars are since the highest vehicle class in rallying.
- 3.1 1997-2010 3.1.1 Citroën
- 3.1.2 Ford
- 3.1.3 Hyundai
- 3.1.4 Mitsubishi
- 3.1.5 Peugeot
- 3.1.6 Seat
- 3.1.7 Škoda
- 3.1.8 Subaru
- 3.1.9 Suzuki
- 3.1.10 Toyota
- 3.2.1 Citroën
- 3.2.2 Ford
- 3.2.3 Mini
- 3.2.4 Volkswagen
- 3.2.5 Hyundai
Two different rules for World Rally Cars were used in the World Rally Championship. The first version that allowed more technical freedom, existed until 2010. 2011 a new, more restrictive regulations for World Rally Car has been introduced.
When introduced in 1997 WRC regulations it was an evolution of the old Group A regulations. World Rally Cars had to be based on series vehicles were produced in a quantity of at least 2500. In contrast to Group A regulations can not series production of special models was for the homologation of the rally cars but necessary, which possessed the properties of the World Rally Cars. Thus, some World Rally Cars developed on the basis of such a series vehicles that were not available with turbocharged engines and four-wheel drive.
On the vehicles modifications were carried out to comply with the technical provisions of the WRC regulations. These included a maximum displacement of 2 liters, turbo anti-lag system, all-wheel drive, a sequential gearbox with shift paddles, aerodynamic parts, a minimum weight of 1230 kg and a reinforced chassis for greater rigidity.
To limit the engine power air restrictors have been placed with a diameter of 34 millimeters in front of the turbochargers of the World Rally Cars. Thus, the air flow was limited to 10 cubic meters per minute. The engine of a World Rally Car made thus only about 300 hp instead of the otherwise possible 330-340 hp. In the further development of engines, the manufacturer therefore focused less on the attainment of the greatest possible engine performance. Instead they attempted maintain the widest possible torque over a wide speed range.
For the 2011 season the WRC regulations were revised. The World Rally Cars are now based on the Super 2000 regulations and differ from Super 2000 vehicles primarily by their engine and an aerodynamic package. Technically, the World Rally Cars since 2011 have a greater proximity to the production vehicles than the previous World Rally Cars. Since the minimum length of 4 meters was repealed, only small cars can be used as base vehicles now. As drive 1.6-liter turbo engines with direct injection are required. The speed of these motors is limited to 8500 rpm. It must be installed with a diameter of 33 millimeters air restrictor, and the charging pressure is limited to 2.5 bar. The latter is to keep the torque at 400 Nm. The gear change is now mechanically by means of stick shift, shift paddles were banned. There are only approved mechanical differentials. The minimum weight is 1200 kg or 1350 kg with driver and front passenger, loaded in both cases with a spare wheel. The use of exotic materials is severely limited. Electronic driving aids are prohibited.
Tour a World Rally Car
Compared with the standard vehicle falls in the WRC especially the vehicle width. The currently limited to 1820 mm and fully utilized by manufacturers width of the WRC differs from the standard model by about 10 cm and makes fender flares required. The next noticeable differences are the spoilers, mainly mounted on the trunk lid. They are used to improve the road holding of the WRC, especially at higher speeds, and bring a difference of about 10 km / h average speed on the fastest stages of the World Rally Championship. The superseded by 4 mm thick Plexiglas side windows is different from the WRC series and S2000 - vehicle. This change is mainly for weight savings in the premium vehicle sector. The windows do not open, and there are built into them small sliding window in order to compensate the lack of opportunity to "Down cranking ". In the front bumper and bonnet are several latticed openings which allow greater air flow than the standard vehicle. On the roof, directly behind the windshield, there is a centrally located air scoop. This is the adjustable air in the passenger compartment. Links of the air scoop on the driver, this may be a camera body.
The rules specified that World Rally Cars must use MacPherson struts at the front and rear axle. Depending on the to be driven underground WRCs are equipped with in contrast to the series production vehicle very high or low ground clearance. This can be influenced by the rapidly manually height and hardness adjustable suspension. On gravel is partly down to amazingly bad routes. Where an experienced off-road drivers would advise to walking pace, the World Rally Cars move, some more on the reinforced bottom plate sliding in - not comprehensible to the layman - velocities. This requires a very robust construction, especially in the chassis and underbody area.
In gravel rallies 6,5 x15 '' and 7x15 '' rims are allowed. On asphalt 8x18 '' rims with a prescribed minimum weight of 8.9 kg is mandatory. The tread of the tires must not exceed 9''. From the 2011 season WRCs are exclusively equipped with Michelin tires. Any kind of run-flat systems has been prohibited since 2008.
When asphalt rallies the WRC are often typical side streets, with the expected bumps and base damage, go. It is not seldom leave the road in the curve interior completely to cut all around. Therefore rally cars must, even at a low ground clearance, still have an effective travel. The elastic lip of the front bumper has very common ground contact, but prevents, to leave too much air to the vehicle. On all substrates, it is important that the team finds the best compromise in the vehicle setup. Which loads a WRC - even on asphalt - is exposed during a rally, for example, the fact that it came in 2011 to 113 broken rims at the Rally Germany. To delay a WRC according to the asphalt special stages, internally ventilated disc brakes with a diameter of 355 mm at the front and 300 mm ventilated discs are used on the rear axle. The four-piston calipers on the front axle are water cooled.
With the aim of new manufacturers to move to take part in the World Rally Championship, the Regulations for the FIA World Rally Cars led 1997. While Subaru and Ford directly a World Rally Car took to the starting line - Toyota only joined the rest of the season with a WRC added - Mitsubishi familiar at first continue on a vehicle of Group A regulations. But the WRC regulations brought the desired effect. After 1998, a fifth seat manufacturer that gained, came in 1999 with Skoda and Peugeot two more manufacturers added. In the following years, always involved seven works at the World Cup. While Toyota and Seat attracted relatively quickly back again, but began Hyundai and Citroen commitment. During the season 2001 Mitsubishi who successfully mitmischte last manufacturer with a Group A car in the WRC field changed on a World Rally Car. In the middle of the decade, the number of participants gradually began to reduce. First, increased after the season of 2003 Hyundai. After the 2005 season, Mitsubishi, Peugeot and Skoda ended their engagement. From once seven manufacturers were thus 2006 only three factory- represented in the World Cup. Although Suzuki added in 2008 as the first newcomers since seven years, the field at their own World Rally Cars, due to the global economic crisis, Suzuki pulled the end of the year along with Subaru but again from the World Cup back.
As the World Rally Championship was only discharged from 2009 with two brands that FIA was forced to act. She led in 2011 a new rule, according to which only konstengünstigere near-production vehicles were registered. The World Rally Cars now based on the Super 2000 regulations and were equipped with smaller 1.6-liter turbo engines. With this decision, the FIA had success because 2011 enriched with Mini a new brand, the vehicle field, and Volkswagen announced its entry into the World Rally Championship with its own World Rally Car for the season 2013. In October 2011, it was pointed in the press on circumstantial evidence that even Hyundai and Toyota dealt with the development of our own World Rally Cars.
From the factory teams decommissioned World Rally Cars often landed in the hands of private drivers who drove with them to the part in the World Championship, but also partly in the national rally championships. The FIA World Rally Cars wanted to see as the highest vehicle class in rallying only in the World Rally Championship. Therefore, they exerted pressure on national motor sport federations to ban these vehicles in their competitions. In 2009, World Rally Cars were banned in the German Rally Championship, but not in some championships of other countries. Also from 2011, the old generation of World Rally Cars are still allowed in some national championships until 2010, where they are still used by private drivers.
List of World Rally Cars
The Citroën Total World Rally Team won the award of the World Rally Championship in 2011 and 2012 the title in the Manufacturers' Championship. Sebastien Loeb won the DS3 WRC its eighth and ninth drivers' world championship titles.