The 1984-1995 discharged German Touring Car Championship DTM for short, was in the German Motorsport as the most important racing series that is taking over the role of German Motor Racing Championship. After setting the Touring Car Championship, together with the International Touring Car Championship in late 1996, the DTM was revived in 2000 as a German Touring Car Masters.
- 3.1 Eternal Scoring since 1984
German Touring Car Championship
In Germany, the German Racing Championship (DRM ) was popular from 1972, originally in the near-series FIA Group 2 Touring Cars from Ford, BMW and Porsche took part, from 1977 as a turbo -driven FIA Group 5 versions. As of 1982, the FIA changed the rules, the DRM moved to the new Group C sports car, but they were not available or very expensive, such as the Porsche 956 C. The decreased numbers of starters back, as the costs rose higher and higher.
The then Head of the National Sports Commission for automobile racing in Germany (ONS ) responded and developed again Regulations for near- touring cars that were cheaper. As a basis, the new FIA Group A were vehicles from the European Touring Car Championship. In the EM the masters were in three engine capacity classes ( up to 1600 cc; 2500 cc, 2500 cc ) determined, while in the DTM, the (DPM ) said in its first two years, yet German production car championship, tried by different vehicle weights and tire widths to equalize the performance even with different engines. They spoke of the " classless society ". This was clearly visible to the audience, who had really won, namely the one who ran over the finish line first - whether the BMW 323i was a slight or serious Chevrolet Camaro with more than twice the engine capacity now.
The first season of the German production car championship already brought a full grid. There were seven different vehicles, which recorded a victory for themselves: Rover Vitesse, BMW 635 CSi, BMW 325i, Alfa Romeo GTV 6, Ford Mustang, Chevrolet Camaro and Volvo 240 Turbo - not to mention the other vehicles that were riding, but prevailed not. The very first race started not in Germany but in Zolder, Belgium. Winner in this historic race was the Essen BMW driver Harald Grohs, who won five races, but still not the championship. This went on today Opel motorsport director Volker Strycek on a BMW 635 CSi, who had decided a single race for themselves.
Media interest is increasing
A major problem at the time was the lack of interest of spectators and sponsors. The DTM umbrella organization ITR responded by changing the regulations: instead of only one race more than 100 km have now been consecutively discharged two separate races. This concept was later adopted by other racing series. In addition, free tickets were distributed for the season opener in 1988 on the Belgian Zolder Circuit thousands, with the result that homed now around 53,000 spectators at the track only 5000 people in 1987. The races were also broadcast live by ZDF and 3sat; by the year 1992, the television coverage of the DTM at 86 stations in 52 countries could be expanded.
Over the years, the field evolved from a private event tuner to a pure plant Championship big car manufacturers such as Audi, Alfa Romeo, BMW, Mercedes -Benz, Ford and Opel. Great popularity with the public obtained the DTM mainly by extremely "close " race. Unlike in F1 wheel-to - wheel duels are possible with touring cars and the cars of different manufacturers were almost equivalent.
In addition, the DTM started until 1993 several times (1988-1990 and 1992/93 ) under the 24 -hour race at the Nürburgring before a huge crowd and showed spectacular scenes on this classic circuit.
The introduction of the automobile manufacturers
The DTM was created to allow private teams affordable racing. The growing success of DTM, however, led to the fact that automotive manufacturers involved with work teams. The works have invested more money in the development of vehicles and the private teams found it difficult to keep the connection. This meant that more and more private teams got out and the starting fields shrank. Was it in 1988 at the season finale at Hockenheim still 46 touring car, went in 1992 during the last DTM race with " Group A vehicles " only 27 touring cars at the start. The producers have launched the " classless regulations " from their concept. To obtain the equality also in various basic models, the rules has always been adapted, but this led to conflicts.
The problem of turbo engines
Engines with an exhaust gas turbocharger have the advantage that they have significantly more power with the same displacement as compared to naturally aspirated engines. Therefore was in the DTM, as in the DRM -1970s, a so-called "turbo factor " of 1.4. This means that the engine capacity turbocharged 1.4 is multiplied in order to classify them equivalent to the naturally aspirated engines can. In Formula 1, the turbo factor of 2 was customary at the time, with additional restrictions did little to stop the power explosion. Due to the advantageous low " Turbo - factor " won the 1985 cars with turbocharged engines, seven of nine races. With responsible for this were two names that together won victories already in the DRM: driver Klaus Ludwig Ford Turbo, here's a Ford Sierra Cosworth and Sierra XR4Ti. At the beginning of the Sierra had teething problems, but if he did, the victory was virtually certain. The ONS responded: "Turbo - factor " has been increased from 1.4 to 1.7 and the base weights increased. Since racing successes were punished by additional weight, the Sierra came to 1.6 tons of bulk at the race at the Berlin AVUS 1988. Since in this race broke the front suspension, the ONS had to come up with a different arrangement for the turbos. The solution was air restrictor on the intake side. Less air means less power. Nevertheless, Klaus Ludwig in 1988 brought his Ford Sierra Cosworth with the title, it should not remain the last title for " king" Ludwig, as he was called quickly with the fans. As for turbo not a fair assessment could be found, imposed the ONS 1991, a ban on turbo engines. This attracted a year before the effect of the prohibition the DTM exit the Ford brand by itself, since a 2.5 - liter naturally aspirated engine as the BMW M3 and Mercedes -Benz 190, did not want to build one.
Audi V8 engine
After the departure of Ford Audi and the gap closed again in 1990. After a technique controversy was resolved, Audi came up with some new ones. While BMW and Mercedes at 2500 cm ³ translated large 4- cylinder, Audi chose a 3600 cc big 8-cylinder model Audi V8, and thus almost 75 kW more. Yet this Audi wanted to keep the quattro all- wheel drive system from the production car in touring cars. The ITR had indeed asked Audi to abandon the all-wheel drive, but Audi did not change his mind. On high-speed lines as the old Hockenheimring and the AVUS the powerful V8 enteilten the cheaper four cylinders. Only on winding roads as Zolder offset the performance and liability benefits the greater weight of the large Audi V8. The result was two seasons in which Audi has won the drivers' championship. Went the first championship in 1990 veteran Hans -Joachim Stuck, Frank Biela could defend it the following year for the Audi brand. Audi is thus the first manufacturer in the DTM, which succeeded a title defense. The team ranking but never won the Audi V8. 1992 Audi but had no chance. The ITR had the weight of the touring car further increased so that they had to give up their dominance. With a new " twisted " crankshaft, with 180 ° instead of 90 ° crank pin offset, they wanted to try to keep the connection, but such a fundamentally " fashioned " part was against the spirit of the regulations. BMW and Mercedes protested and got right Audi was not allowed to use the shaft. The consequence was the immediate withdrawal of the Audi brand in the DTM to the middle of the 1992 season.
The end of the " Group A " Regulations
The production-based Group A regulations had no future. The " classless society " drew too many discussions about the classification of vehicle types by itself. Ford showed this with the turbo engine, Audi V8 engine and all-wheel drive. Mercedes and BMW sold more Evo variants, so the spoiler used there, which improve the aerodynamics of the vehicle, could also be used in DTM. The call for a new series of regulations for a " class equal society" became louder.
The new " Class 1 " Regulations
To succeed with the new regulations, the interests of all car manufacturers should be adapted to each other. This proved to be very difficult, because with Alfa Romeo, Audi, BMW, Mercedes -Benz and Opel developed five brands of these regulations. There was a very permissive regulations. The touring car had not technically have much in common with the production car.
The FIA wrote the new so-called " tier 1" Regulations of internationally. This means that all countries had the right and the opportunity to go to these regulations. Besides Germany, France also had interest in the " Class 1 " rules, but they opted for the close-to " class 2" regulations.
Since 1993 have been used so-called " class 1" vehicles, where strong modifications were allowed. In particular, the previous sheet bodies could be replaced by carbon fiber chassis, making the move away from the actual touring car to the prototype race car was completed. As engines V6 came with 2500 cc used, which were similar to elaborate as former F1 engines and power ratings up to 370 kW services. At Opel and Alfa Romeo all-wheel drives were used. The electronics were very expensive.
"Class 1" with only two producers
Of the five producers who had participated in the " tier 1" Regulations, the one withdrew after the other. Audi 80 had indeed developed based on the Audi a " Class 1" touring car, but decided not to use in the DTM. BMW also changed the opinion, wanted to use a typical BMW six-cylinder in place of the 2.5 -liter V6 engines. But exceptions should not be approved at the beginning of the " same class society", also BMW withdrew from the DTM. BMW and Audi led henceforth the original idea in the new Super Tourenwagen Cup continues, with relatively near-standard two-liter cars of the " class -2" Regulations and big brand diversity, and with a Peugeot, Nissan, Ford and Honda. Opel hesitated after over the other two brands and " put the development of the new Calibra V6 initially on ice ". Mercedes stuck to the DTM and thanks to the entry of Alfa Romeo survived the DTM with only two manufacturers.
The DTM entry from Alfa Romeo
The Premiere 1993 "Class - 1" touring car was dominated by the new manufacturer Alfa Romeo. The Italians jumped into the icy waters of the DTM and substandard the old-established counterparties Mercedes. The Alfa Romeo 155, which went into production in 1992, began his career as one of the most successful touring car of all time. Mercedes -founded their own poor performance implies that the old 190s and only a temporary solution is that has been adapted to the new "Class 1". After the 1993 season was among the Italians, Mercedes- Benz in the following years with a significantly increased budget front again.
The comeback of Opel
At the finals in 1993 Opel returned with the brand new Calibra V6 4x4 in the DTM after the brand has to " Group A " times with cadet and Omega was active. The success of DTM seemed assured even without the two Bavarian brands. With the new car Manuel Reuter qualified despite a training accident for the third row. Ex - F1 World Champion Keke Rosberg took on the second Calibra immediately upon debut the first championship points for Opel. This not only ensured the future of Opel in the DTM, but also the future of the " tier 1" touring car race. The following year, Opel played all season, but a few notable successes did not come out you. When guest race in 1994 in English Donington Park Manuel Reuter scored the first victory of the Calibra, but this was only decided on green table. The breakthrough of Calibration should come only in 1996.
The arms race escalates
With the debut of the Mercedes C -Class, which was also a real " class 1" touring car from 1994, the arms race began in the DTM. Mercedes had passed with the C-Class to Alfa Romeo. With more and more high -tech tried all three companies to stay in touch or come from behind to the front. The costs exploded, and for private teams was no more room. As of 1995, there were only the three factory teams. Even before playing the private sector only a minor role. But the works were struggling to master the new technology. Alfa Romeo upgraded in 1994 even back to last year's model. Opel had problems to make the technology was made. With less difficulty than the competition so it was possible for Mercedes, the championships with "King " Klaus Ludwig to bring in 1994 (his third and final DTM title ) and 1995 with Bernd Schneider (his first of five titles). For a national series that ran only in Germany, the producers, the investments were too high. However, in order to hold on to the art and to not again have to present a new rule, you went other ways that should justify the cost.
International Touring Car Championship
→ Main article: International Touring Car Championship
Just for a World Touring Car Championship, it seemed justifiable to invest such large sums of money for the " tier 1" touring car. So the idea developed to internationalize the DTM. In 1991, some invitational race in Brno and in the English Donington Park were organized under the name ITR Cup. However, this did not count for the championship. Also in 1992 Brno was visited, in 1993 and 1994 instead Donington Park.
1995 next seven races in Germany and five rounds of the International Touring Car Championship were then discharged. As early as 1996 was only the ITC for the staging and the DTM disappeared. The high cost, which led to the establishment of an international series, were also her downfall. The technique was also completely escalated during the season, surpassing the expense of the former Formula 1 now significantly. End of the year, Alfa Romeo and Opel got out of the championship, which effectively brought about the end of the series.
German Touring Car Masters
→ Main article: DTM
After the ITC investigated the three manufacturers a new field. Opel and Alfa Romeo went on with "Class -2" - touring cars. There they met on old DTM Known as Ford, BMW or Audi. Mercedes -Benz made with sports car racing in the FIA GT Championship on. In Germany the "Class -2" touring car drove in the Super Tourenwagen Cup. The series had the task of replacing the DTM. But this did not make it. The " class 2 " touring cars were seriennah and unspectacular and have therefore not been accepted by the public. 1999 it had reached with the STW in Germany reached its end. Again, the costs were too high, due to a very narrow scope of the regulations, which should be exploited consuming or had. Since 2000, a new DTM is discharged, now referred to as German Touring Car Masters.
In the DTM, both great talents were "discovered " for the Formula 1 again and again, as well as former Formula 1 drivers got in after their active time in the highest class formula in touring car racing. To set the Formula 1 driver Alexander Wurz and Giancarlo Fisichella before their talent in the DTM test. Another could not do that: Michael Schumacher, reassigned as a guest driver of the Mercedes in support of Kurt Thiim in the season finale of the Sauber sportscar in October 1990, came with his touring car debut at the Hockenheimring only up to the first corner. He misjudged, slipped across the field and hit just one in which up to then leader in the standings. Cecotto on BMW was thus deprived of any victory and title chances. But Mercedes also did not benefit from the action, because it was happy finally the third on the championship honors, Stuck on Audi.
With Annette Meeuvissen (BMW), Mercedes Stermitz (BMW) and Ellen Lohr ( only with Mercedes DTM female winner in Hockenheim 1992) also ladies were at the start.
Master DTM 1984-1995
Eternal Scoring since 1984
As of end of 2009 season * ITC =