World Rally Championship
The World Rally Championship (official FIA World Rally Championship, abbreviated WRC) is a summary of the rules, regulations and conditions under which the homonymous World Rally Championship, one of the automotive federation Fédération Internationale de l' Automobile ( FIA) set rally series, is discharged.
The World Rally Championship is the highest-ranking organized by the FIA series of rallying. It is called the pinnacle of rallying, as it claims to provide the highest technical, driving skills, but also financial requirements of all rally racing series for drivers and constructors. The World Rally Championship will be held around the world as a series of current total of 13 World Rally Championship races (as of 2014).
- 9.1 driver
- 9.2 brands
The World Cup
Today's rally sport whose origins are generally dated to the first edition of the Rallye Monte Carlo in 1911, officially International Championship for Manufacturers short IMC developed over the European Rally Championship for drivers, to which in the 1960s, the International Championship of marks ( ) was come. This already organized by the FIA racing series have been summarized from the 1973 World Rally Championship.
The WRC currently consists (as of 2014) of 13 individual races, each of which is discharged as a three - to five-day events. The individual race results are ranked using a points system.
Drivers' World Championship
Since the World Cup season 1979 the official drivers' world championship titles will be awarded to the rider who achieves the highest score in the sum of all evaluated races at the end of the season. Winner of the rally is concerned, the time- fastest driver after adding all the special stages. The points for the drivers' world championship were awarded to 2009 after the former Formula 1 principle: The total victory earned ten points, a second place eight, a 3rd place six, a 4th place five points, etc., and an 8th space thus a point a. From 2010 also applies to the WRC the analog modified to Formula 1 points system for the first ten drivers with 25-18-15-12-10-8-6-4-2-1 points. New since 2011 is the introduction of a points allocation for the three fastest crews with 3-2-1 bonus points, the so-called Power Stage. The power stage is a shorter, if possible audience friendly discharged, once a rally special stage performed, which is partly also broadcast live on TV.
By the same token, a world title for the most successful co-driver will be given. The passenger has main task during the special stages to read from a, before the actual competition through him and the driver worked out pace notes. This also prayer book called roadbook the radius of each curve, the length of the next line, any change in the route subsurface, changes in light and shadow conditions, jumps over crests and possible hazards such as large rocks, etc. accurately noted and read during the race. On the special stage is rarely driven solely on sight, so the pilot must know what is waiting around the bend on it to select the right speed, the right gear and the right line. At the rally itself the passenger to the driver transmits this data through the on-board radio in unbroken succession (hence the name " prayer book " ) so that it is prepared and can be proactive. A small error of the passenger often has fatal consequences. At any time during the event the co- pilot may in principle also take over the control, then from the driver of the passenger.
Manufacturer World Cup
It is awarded the Constructors' World Champion beside the driver World Champion and World Champion co-driver a team. Current score based on each race by adding the points scored by the respective drivers. Usually a team participates with two cars at the World Rally Championship. Starts a team with a racing car that reached Constructors World Champion points per individual race will be doubled. A team can also go with more than two vehicles at the start. The points for the constructors' championship but are only awarded to, a previously reported ( max. two) works cars. In the ranking privateer lying or not reported vehicles of one manufacturer are simply skipped. So it may happen that one for example that have arrived on the 13th place overall in the target participants, although no counter receives as a driver, but this manufacturer points is allocated for its brand. The bonus points the Power Stage will not be counted in the Constructors' World Championship.
Pro Rally there is always the full number of points corresponding placement. This applies even if the event had to be shortened or canceled drastically.
Each World Rally Championship consists of several two-to six-day individual race, which are briefly referred to as Rally or World Championship race. A rally is in this case usually named after the country in which it is organized. Most rallies take place in Europe, but also in Africa, Asia, Australia, North America and South America and were held regularly world championship races.
Unlike motor sports, which usually take place on a paved circular course, is driven mainly on so-called special stages in the World Rally Championship. These take place during the use of blocked by the rally participants, but otherwise publicly navigable paths and roads.
In the World Rally Championship, the Rally is regarded as a single stage race. The individual stages are made up of special stages and link stages. The timed special stages are mainly on gravelly walking paths, paved mountain roads, muddy slopes, but also on snow and ice instead. It is not driver vs. driver, but on fastest time is being driven. The starting intervals lie with the priority drivers usually scheduled in two minutes. The rest of the field often starts after every few minutes. But it can also lead to delays. After a short break night tests may be performed again for the 2010 season.
The total distance of the timed special stages must be at least 300 kilometers. For a single special stage (short- WP) no minimum or maximum length of the route is prescribed. Each special stage ( even just a portion thereof ) may be taken a maximum of twice a rally in the standings. An exception to this are the "spectator tests " represent; these stages, referred to as Super Special Stages and Power Stages are aligned with an audience as possible and Camera freundich. They are often held in stadiums or other clear spaces and partially broadcast live on TV. By normally two, three or four stages, a " loop " is formed, which opens into the service park or leads to a so-called remote service where repairs are possible.
As liaison stages are referred to the sections of special stage on special stage or to and from the service park. These routes will not be counted, but must be completed mandatory within a certain time window. Premature publication or delays are occupied with time penalties, which are added to the traveled time of the special stages. Since this compound Tappen be driven on public roads, all race cars participating in the World Rally Championship, to be approved for road traffic. On the liaison stages the traffic rules must be observed by the pilot.
At the end of a rally, which usually ends with the Power Stage, the individual times of special stages and any time penalties are added. It wins those crew who go through the total distance the fastest.
Each round of the World Rally Championship is divided into two or three stages. Each of these stages is further subdivided into short stages of usually 2 km (viewers stages ) to over 50 km in length. But the rally weekend starts usually at least two days before. As an example of this is the 2011 Rally Mexico. All times refer to local time.
Starting two to three days before the competition, the rally driver inspect the course, indicating their co-pilots accurate information to their notes, especially about all the curves and peculiarities of the individual sections. These visits take place in largely standard vehicles, and each special stage may be visited at most twice by the crew. Since the track is almost always released for public transport at this time, the crews of course, have to adhere to the traffic rules. At the Rally Mexico in 2011, a total of 365 km can be driven on special stages, it merely result for the visit of the special stages 730 km. As the rally but including liaison stages goes on about 1030 km, one can imagine the actual distance to be traveled alone during the preparations, work out well. While the discharged as a time trial race itself then reads the passenger front of the driver, these notes from the prayer book.
In the meantime, the team which usually consists of 40 persons is built, the " workshop - tents " in the service park on, settles into the paddock and begins to make the cars ready to go. At 19 clock finds the first press conference followed by a reception. On Thursday, the day before the actual start of the rally will be from 8 bis 13 clock clock as a shake down designated trial run with the race cars. These are then returned to the service park where most changes to various settings are made and the vehicles are prepared for the first special stage. By 13 clock 30, it is the second official FIA press conference. This is followed by a ninety -minute " autograph session " with various media work for the crews.
By 20 clock is the ceremonial start, which leads directly to the first spectator special stage from 20 clock 06 release. This first, only 1.050 meters short ( spectator ) special stage (SS1 = Special Stage ) is indeed gezeitet, but has no influence on the starting order of the second special stage, as this is done within the framework of the next day started the first stage. This will start on Friday from 08 clock 43 in the order of the current Drivers' Championship object. The World Championship leader first, then the second etc. Previously, from 8 clock, there is still a short stay in the service park after the race cars have spent ( like every night at a rally ) in the parc fermé. There, small changes to the settings of the car can still be performed. Especially on the chassis, as the WP1 on asphalt, the next three substantially longer (26 km, 24 km, 19 km) take place on gravel stages, however. Be started stages usually with a minute gap between the individual vehicles. Thus, the times given for take-offs, the arrival at the service park, etc. refer to the first vehicle. On the liaison stages, the crews must follow their prescribed timetable for them exactly. For variations, there are time penalties. Of course, the driver must keep the liaison stages to the laws valid, since they occur on roads used by public transport. From the WP2 performs a liaison stage to WP3, then a stage for WP4, from which a liaison stage to WP5, a spectator stage near the paddock, the "loop" in the direction of the paddock for " lunch service " in the paddock with an attached media center leads almost to the end. The first driver needs there, after about 70 WP- kilometers and so far a total of 250 km driven distance, arrive on time by 12 clock 29, followed by the rest of the starting field with one-minute distance. While the crew gives interviews and keeps a short lunch break, various service work and also various repairs must be carried out for 45 minutes on race cars. 58 minutes after arrival in the paddock the race car must have traveled the path to WP6 to go there on time at the start. In the afternoon, three special stages to be covered in the same way again. This time, however, introduces the " loop " is not directly back into the paddock. Driving is a small detour to the spectators and media to present at two short spectator stages ( WP 9 10) and there to fight for the last few seconds of the day. Then it goes back over a liaison stage back to the paddock. This is followed by interviews, service on the car, " parc fermé " and sleep. At the end of the first stage, about 510 kilometers were covered, with only 144 km are attributable to special stages.
On Saturday at the second stage, it behaves very much like the day before. This time the boot sequence is, however, led by the fastest riders of the previous day, the leader of the rally, which is followed by the 2nd, 3rd, etc.. It will run three special stages and a spectator special stage in the morning and in the morning. After a short lunch break with interviews and service, in the afternoon three WPs and again in the evening two spectator stages. This second stage consists of a total of 368 km, this time with 159 km to be completed as special stages.
Sunday is again the leading crew, followed by the next fastest, started. This typical final day of a three - stages rally consists of only three stages, which are 62 km long in total and are connected by four connecting stages at 92 km. The last of these three stages will be played as a power stage, in which the three fastest crews get 3-2-1 Bonus points for the driver 's or front passenger 's World Cup. The starting field is found from 11 clock 51, a paddock. By 13 clock the ceremony takes place. At the press conference by 13 clock 45, the crews who have used the shortest time for covering the distance on the WPs and get the least penalty time will be interviewed.
Since the World Cup season 2011, the class names have changed fundamentally. Was the " WRC class" in 2010 still referred to as the A8, which is called from 2011 A1. In former P -WRC (N4 ) now is PWRC (A3). The S2000 cars, formerly as S -WRC ( also N4) cars mentioned, now start as SWRC (A2). It runs through the entire starting field. -
In general, may only participate in large numbers produced models of passenger cars at the World Rally Championship. This means that each authorized rally car must be based on a standard road car. The differences of allowed modifications will be apparent from class to class each different and the FIA homologation.
The interest to the WRC is a rally course in the middle of the action. But do not just enrolled for the world championship points WRC crews at the start; there are quite a number of world championships and classes, in which it comes to wins and points in the context of a World Rally Championship. There are divided legitimate for the start of racing cars, depending on the type and engine size in eleven different classes. The five most important, because most competitive classes with its own championship are:
- Class A0 (WRC ): World Rally Cars take part in all World Rally Championship races. They are the only vehicles with a realistic chance of victory in the World Rally Championship. Since the far-reaching change to the Regulations of 2011, equipped with all-wheel drive World Rally Cars are based on Super 2000 cars, which are, however, equipped with 1,600 cc 16V engines with turbocharging and direct fuel injection. In addition, WRC cars have a " WRC upgrade kit ", which consists of front and rear spoilers, special. In the 2011 season started fourteen teams with the following WRC: Citroën DS3 WRC, Ford Fiesta RS WRC, Mini WRC.
- Class A1: Since occurred during the 2011 season, homologation of the Mini Countryman S2000, which are equipped with 1600 cc petrol engines with direct injection and turbocharging, the conventional 2-liter Super 2000 cars are referred to as Class A2. Fitted with 1600cc turbo motor vehicles of S 2000 Regulations are called class A1 and the WRC cars as a class A0 or class WRC.
- Class A2 ( SWRC ): Vehicles in this class are also entitled to participate in all the World Championship races. The based on the adapted rallies for Super 2000 regulations race cars have all-wheel drive and a 2000 cc, naturally aspirated engine. This class is also used in the Intercontinental Rally Challenge is the most competitive of the World Rally Championship after the WRCs.
- Class A3 ( PWRC ): In these based on the Group N Regulations vehicles is with max. 2000 cc 4- cylinder engines, turbocharged, all-wheel drive and several already installed as standard and electronic driving aids equipped race cars. Due to the large series based on proximity regulations in this class may, apart from, for example, safety equipment and shock absorbers / springs, hardly any changes to the vehicle can be performed. With almost 300 hp and over 300 Nm are the classes A1 and A2 inferior mainly due to the higher vehicle weight. The single for years successfully used PWRC cars are the Mitsubishi Lancer Evo with its models, its Malaysian manufactured under license "twin " Proton Pert and the Subaru Impreza WRX STi. Vehicles of this class may also be encountered in all World Cup races. The Production Car World Rally Championship in 2011, however, was limited to seven rallies.
- Class A6 JWRC Rally Junior World Championship: The since 2011 " WRC Academy " called JWRC is a talent competition in the World Rally Championship. The drivers are allowed to date January 1 of the current season have not yet reached the age of 30. We start in this class with Super 1600 cars. Equipped with front-wheel drive, a maximum of 1640 cc 4- cylinder naturally aspirated engine and the 230 hp, are used as vehicles models in the small car class to enable a relatively low cost entry into the international rally scene.
WRC Regulations and Development
After the withdrawal of many manufacturers from the highest class of rallying, last Subaru and Suzuki from the 2009 World Championship, the FIA was forced to act. Only Ford and Citroën were active as a vehicle manufacturer in the World Rally Championship WRC race car. It began a noticeable decline in the public interest, not least because of the perceived by some fans as monotonous seven world titles profits of Citroën factory driver Sébastien Loeb in a row. On the part of the FIA efforts have been made to move the vehicle manufacturer for new entry into the WRC. These were, however, for reasons of cost, answered negatively having regard to the global economic crisis. The FIA and the related negotiations manufacturers came to the conclusion that a new and far-reaching WRC regulations should be introduced in order to reduce costs. So you could also make the entry of new brands more attractive, because all participants would equally develop new vehicles. Also, could easily finance the participation in the events privateers, and the sponsors would thereby also relieved. Since 2011, therefore, the World Rally Cars but ³ gasoline direct injection engines are based on the well known Super 2000 regulations, with 1600 cm with turbocharging and an additional aerodynamic package. These vehicles are much closer to the standard models than its predecessors. The inside of the S2000 and WRC is almost identical. For the first WRC a S2000 ( Kl.A2 ) vehicle must be homologated, which is then upgraded to a WRC ( Kl.A1 ). This is a significant rule change for the 2011 season also starts with a mini -developed in collaboration with Prodrive Mini WRC. Citroën DS3 WRC The Ford Fiesta RS WRC and bring the other manufacturers vehicles at the start completely newly developed. May 5, 2011 by Kris Nissen, Volkswagen Motorsport announced the entry into the World Rally Championship for season 2013. To use the VW Polo R WRC is based on the VW Polo V come with 1.6 - liter turbo engine. First, the VW team is to prepare a few rallies with the Škoda Fabia S2000 contest, while the WRC car is in development.
In the 1960s, a second championship for brands was by the FIA in addition to the European Rally Championship for drivers discharged. For 1970, the Safari Rally has been moved to your Calendar. Due to the now existing run outside Europe, the name of the championship was changed to International Rally Championship for brands. Already in 1971 came more international rallies such as the Morocco Rally, added. From the 1973 season the championship was officially discharged as the World Rally Championship. The first world championship race was the 42ème Rallye Automobile de Monte Carlo, which was launched on January 19 and was won by the Frenchman Jean -Claude Andruet. The first World Rally Champion title of the story was experienced after thirteen races of an Alpine Renault A110 1800. Having a driver's Cup has already been organized as part of the World Rally Championship in the 1977 season and 1978, has been around since the 1979 season in addition to the constructors' championship also an official World Rally Championship for Drivers.
1973-1981 The early years
After Alpine Renault had won the world title in 1973, appeared in the World Rally Championship in 1974, the Lancia Stratos HF. This specially designed for rallying, equipped with a Ferrari V6 engined car was able to secure the world title three years resulted in 1974.1975 and 1976. The following year, 1977, parallel to the World Rally Championship for brands, hosted for the first time the FIA Cup for Rally Drivers. This only twice held race was 1977, the Italians Sandro Munari for themselves, in the 1978 season the Finn Markku Alén was winner of this Cup. From the World Rally Championship in 1979 brand and a drivers' title was awarded. The first official world champion in rallying was 1979, the Swede Björn Waldegård. For more world titles, see table.
1982-1986 Group B era
A still popular as well as controversial time of rallying broke in 1982. When the FIA changed the classification of its racing classes, including vehicles of group B were admitted. It began the five -year phase of the four-wheel drive, equipped partly with turbocharging and various aerodynamic aids exclusively geared for rally sports racing cars. These powerful and due to the almost limitierendem Regulations extremely spectacular prototypes helped the World Rally Championship rapidly to greater prominence. Acceleration from 0 to 100 km / h in under 2.6 seconds on gravel is still fond of quoting power rating in motorsport circles. Triggered by the continuous success of the Audi quattro and its development Audi quattro A2 began a kind of arms race in the World Rally Championship. If you had previously upgraded mainly two-wheel -driven production road cars to powerful rally cars, so pure all-wheel racing machines have now been developed and homologated for Group B of the FIA. For this to be presented had produced and the FIA at least 200 copies of that model. The bulk of this small series was then sold to fans for the road or at car collector, only about ten percent of production created the works teams then extreme rally devices. Peugeot 205 Turbo 16 E2, Ford RS200 and Lancia Delta S4 were named the most important representatives of the turbo engine in mid - fraction, while the Audi Sport quattro S1 possessed a turbo front engine and the MG Metro 6R4 through a suction - rear engine. Their performance was somewhere between 300 and 400 kW ( 400 and 550 hp). This veritable " all-wheel drive monster " could really be tamed only by a few world-class pilots and moved to the limit.
After several severe and in some cases fatal accidents in 1986, the FIA pulled the emergency brake and banished the flyer for ever from the World Rally Championship. At this time, unfortunately, a large part of the audience behaved more like the Running of the Bulls in Pamplona than as a motor sport event. The Rally of Portugal 1986 called for example when two accidents three dead and 34 seriously injured some in the audience. The heavier accident was triggered on the first special stage by a group B car, a Ford RS 200. But the second accident at the same event, this called for " only " a broken leg of a photographer, caused by a Peugeot 205 T16 Group B, the FIA led to far-reaching actions. Starting this season, has also been placed on the more responsible behavior of the crowd more value. It was not uncommon for the first time, cancel a special stage when the crowd run-off areas or even the track itself did not want to leave.
From 1987 to and including 1992 then took a good two dozen of these ultimate Group B Renner, partly even further with enhanced performance to 480 kW/650 hp in the Rallycross Championship her last international field of activity. Nowadays, most of Group B cars are in garages of collectors and racing museums. Only now and again you can still see some of them in action, especially in various mountain race, rally cross race in Britain and Ireland or even in the so-called classic car rallies.
A planned follow-up class, the group S, did not materialize, so that as of 1987 the group A- Class presented the fastest cars of the World Cup. For more world titles, see table.
1986-1997 Group A era
Since Lancia, with the help of Abarth, the most rapidly responded to the changes in the regulations, it came with the Lancia Delta HF 4WD Integrale Group A car with about 220 kW/299 hp the constructors' championship to win six consecutive years. Both Juha Kankkunen and Miki Biasion could ever secure two Drivers' Championship title. After that time the Japanese manufacturers broke. Toyota, Subaru and Mitsubishi were the new title contender. The Spaniard Carlos Sainz, who drove a Toyota Celica GT -Four for Toyota Team Europe, won the title in 1990 and 1992. Kankkunen moved to Toyota from the 1993 season and reached his fourth title a new drivers' championship record, in the same year Toyota could retract its first Manufacturers' Championship. This success could be repeated with the Frenchman Didier Auriol in the following year 1994. Soon, Subaru and Mitsubishi joined with other Japanese successes in this series. Colin McRae won the drivers' title with a Subaru Impreza 1995, and from that time succeeded Subaru to win the Constructors' title three times in a row, while Tommi Makinen managed with a Mitsubishi Lancer, the drivers' world championship title four times in a row from 1996 to 1999 to win. It was also possible Mitsubishi to win the Constructors' World Championship title in 1998.
For more world titles, see table.
From 1998, the WRC era
During the flowing transition from group A to WRC Mitsubishi and Toyota, who participated in all World Cup runs contrary to Peugeot were able to once again enter the driver or the Manufacturers' World Championship titles. From 1999, however, broke the era of two French producers, which are united in the PSA group, at. From 2000 to 2002 Peugeot won the constructors' world championship title three times in a row. The Peugeot driver Marcus Grönholm was also able to secure in the years 2000 and 2002 drivers' title. Interrupted in 2001 by the former Subaru driver Richard Burns. While Peugeot withdrew from the World Rally Championship, Citroën took over the race for the Konstrukters World Cup. From the 2003 season until the 2012 season Citroën won the Constructors' World Championship seven times. After 2003, the then -starting with a Subaru Petter Solberg had won the World Rally Championship for Drivers, the new master record with nine consecutive World Rally Championship titles from 2004 to 2012, the Citroën driver Sébastien Loeb. He had 62 rally wins the season-ending 2010, more than twice as many victories recorded as the second most successful rally driver of all time after victories and former world champion on Peugeot Marcus Gronholm.
For more world titles, see table.
List of official World Rally Champion
Driver with the most overall wins
Status: after the rally Sweden on February 8, 2014