Borno is the northeast state of Nigeria. The capital is Maiduguri, which is with 1,112,511 inhabitants ( 2005) and largest city. The dominant ethnic group are the Kanuri, predominant religion is Sunni Islam.
The state is in the northeast in the Nigerian part of the Chad Basin and is bordered to the northwest by the Republic of Niger, on the northeast by Chad, on the south by the Adamawa State, on the west by the states of Yobe and Gombe and east to Cameroon. The Chingurmi - Duguma area on the eastern border with Cameroon is set to 1228 km ² nature reserve and is part of the National Park Chad Basin. The topography of the state is divided into two regions, the lowlands of the Chad Basin in the north and the mountainous regions of the Biu Plateau in the south west and the Mandara Mountains in the southeast. The longest river in the region is the Yedseram, this rises in the Mandara Mountains and flows against the north-east of Lake Chad, which he, however, not seen since the 1980s. It feeds in the flood season in the Sambisa swamps the other major river in the region, the Ngadda. This is dammed at Alau Reservoir, the main water source of the provincial capital, Maiduguri, Jere feeds the Bow wetlands and flows along the Bama Beach Ridge northward. The Bama Beach Ridge is a low range of hills which formed the coast of the Mega - Lake Chad about 6,000 years ago and is comprised of inert sand dunes which are covered with a grass vegetation. The border with Cameroon is the river of El Beid, which is considered the largest river in the region. The former portion of the state on Lake Chad since the 1980s, a wetland of international importance which was taken to the Ramsar Convention in 2008 under the title of Lake Chad Wetlands in Nigeria in the list of wetlands.
At a long continuous history of settlement on the territory of the State, have the archaeological sites of Gajiganna culture, southeast of Lake Chad down.
On the basis of continuing historical Emirates Borno, the state was formed from part of the former state of " North -Eastern " on February 3, 1976. First governor was between February 1976 and March 1976 Muhammadu Buhari.
Current governor is sheriff since May 29, 2003 Ali Modu. The Emirates still exist today as monarchies, which represent sub-national entities. However, the emirs have only an advisory role.
In Borno state, Islamic law, the Sharia, which act as a source of legislation and case law applies.
Governors and Administrators
- Muhammadu Buhari (Governor 1976)
- M. A. Amin (Governor 1976-1978 )
- Tunde Idiagbon (Governor 1978-1979 )
- Mohammed Goni (Governor 1979-1983 )
- Sheikh Jarma (Governor 1983)
- Abubakar Waziri (Governor 1984-1985)
- Abdul Mumini Aminu (Governor 1985-1987)
- Abduwan Mohammed (Governor 1987-1989)
- Mohammed Maina (Governor 1989-1990)
- Mohammed Marwa (Governor 1990-1992)
- Maina Ma'aji Lawan (Governor 1992-1993)
- Ibrahim Dada ( administrator 1993-1996)
- V. A. Ozodunobi ( administrator 1996-1998)
- Lawal Haruna ( administrator 1998-1999)
- Mala Kachalla (Governor 1999-2003)
The state is divided into 27 Local Government Areas. These are: Abadam, Askira - Uba, Bama, Bayo, Biu, Chibok, Damboa, Dikwa, Gubio, Guzamala, Gwoza, Hawul, Jere, Kaga, Kala - bellows, Konduga, Kukawa, Kwaya - Kusar, Mafa, Magumeri, Maiduguri, Marte, Mobbar, Monguno, Ngala, Nganzai and Shani.
Agriculture is the main economic activity in Borno. There are millet, rice, cassava, dates, vegetables, sorghum, wheat, potatoes, beans, sugar cane, peanuts, cotton and rubber mounted and operated livestock.
The state exported decorative leather work, footwear, adhesives, gelatin and other goods. Fishing and fish processing are significant.
Borno has a well developed infrastructure and connections by air, by rail and road to other states. In Maiduguri has an international airport.