Carlsberg A / S, based in Copenhagen, Denmark, is the fourth largest brewery group in the world behind Anheuser -Busch InBev, SABMiller and Heineken. In German-speaking countries it is represented among others by the brand Holsten, Astra, Lübzer, Feldschlosschen and Hannen Alt.
Carlsberg is not to be confused with the German Karl mountain brewery from Homburg.
The history of the brewery group dates back to 1847, opened as a company founder Jacob Christian Jacobsen Carlsberg Bryggerier Kjøbenhavn the Vesterbro district. The premises of those days is today under the name Gamle Carlsberg is a popular tourist destination of the capital, with guided tours, beer tastings and cultural events.
Early Carlsberg began to sell his beer and abroad: in 1868 sold Carlsberg beer for the first time in Edinburgh. 1939 made Carlsberg alone from 55 per cent of the total UK beer imports.
In 1882, Jacobsen's son Carl followed his father's example and opened his own brewery, Ny Carlsberg. After the death of his father, Carl led the business and Ny Gamle ( old and new ) together for common company Carlsberg Breweries. The incurred by an industrial production process took advantage of competitive advantage Carlsberg to expand his business. Another result of this endeavor is the bottom-fermenting yeast Saccharomyces carlsbergensis, which was bred in 1883 in the research laboratories of Carlsberg and named in 1908 by Emil Christian Hansen after the brewery.
The first brewery, the company opened overseas, was established in 1968 in Malawi. In Europe, however, you went several times a mergers and joint ventures in which it shortly thereafter acquired the absolute majority itself. In this way, the Group is the main domestic competitor Tuborg verleibte succession (1970 ), the British Tetley Brewery (1992-1997 ) and the Orkla Group (2001-2004) a. Especially the Tuborg acquisition, the Group opened a lucrative second income: The areas of the competitors were converted gradually to expensive residential and commercial areas, and since then more secure income.
Also on the German market expanded Carlsberg: Since the acquisition of Holsten-Brauerei in the spring of 2004, Carlsberg is also in Northern Germany the market leader. In Switzerland, Carlsberg has since 1999 Feldschlösschen also through a subsidiary. The most recent acquisition led by Carlsberg in April 2005, when it took over the majority of the Malay Malaysia Berhad Brewery.
Starting no later than mid -2013, the global purchasing, production and logistics are coordinated via a new distribution center in the Swiss brick bridge. In the established for this company Carlsberg Supply Company up to 200 people will be employed.
The Federal Cartel Office imposed on April 2, 2014, the subsidiary Carlsberg Germany as well as against several other breweries in Germany and the Rhenish- Westphalian Association breweries eV fines for illegal price agreements for beer totaling 231.2 million euros.
The house brand Carlsberg, a Danish beer after Pilsener style, is the market leader in Denmark and one of the world's most popular beer brands. The green lettering with a stylized leaf hops and the English slogan probably the best beer in the world ( probably the best beer in the world ) ( which incidentally was spoken in the original advertising by Orson Welles ), are largely unchanged since the 70s. Carlsberg occurs as a brand in sports sponsorship as the namesake for cultural institutions (see below). Under the name of Jacobsen Vintage 3 sold Carlsberg is one of the most expensive beers in the world.
Tuborg is the smaller of the two Danish Breweries Group, was also founded in 1880 in Copenhagen and is even more widespread in Germany than Carlsberg. In Germany, Tuborg, unlike in Denmark, brewed according to the Reinheitsgebot of 1516 in Hamburg. It is characterized by a particularly sweet smell and medium tart- sweet taste.
International best known det grønne ( the green, its green label ) become for its advertising: the advertising sign The thirsty man the painter Erik Henningsen ( 1855-1930 ) showing a sweaty hiker who longs for a refreshment, was in over the years, reproduced in the millions and is considered as one of the most important Danish Some works of art of the 20th century.
Striking feature is the built in 1888 Tuborgflasken, a 30 meter high observation tower in the shape of a beer bottle, which is in Hellerup Copenhagen, close to the center.
Another well-known advertising the brewery, the TV commercial for Tuborg Julebryg, a special Christmas beer ( Christmas beers are in Denmark an essential part of juletid, the holiday season ): the cartoon is from Santa Claus, who ride out gifts in the night snow, but then short-term decisions, a passing Tuborg truck hinterherzueilen, and concludes with a Christmas greeting to the audience. This spot will air in countless ways for many years.
The Tetley 's Brewery in Leeds in the English county of Yorkshire has in its creation some parallels to Carlsberg: both were founded in the first half of the nineteenth century ( Tetley 1822) and were significantly influenced by the ratio of Founding Father and son in the early years; in this case, these were Jochua and Francis Tetley, the leading brewery in northern England made from a family Malzverarbeiter in a short time, with time, more than 300 company-owned pubs.
In 1911, Tetley made worldwide headlines when the magician Harry Houdini almost lost his life while trying to escape from a brimming fermentation vat. The response of the brewery on the incident: " Why will flee even before the best beer in the world? "
1993 merged Carlsberg and Tetley 's, which is mainly engaged in rugby sponsorship to a common society, but for some time the transactions are made mainly from Copenhagen.
Brands in Germany and Switzerland
Germany is one of the most important national markets for Carlsberg; Here, the group is less well represented with its main brand or Tuborg, but with local established brands: Since 2004, the activities are concentrated here in Hamburg Holsten- Brauerei AG. At founded in 1879 in Altona (Elbe ) brewery, which greatly expanded in the 20th century in northern Germany, are now
- Astra, Hamburg
- Elephant Beer
- Gatz Alt, Krefeld
- Hannen Alt, Krefeld
- Holsten Pilsener
- Lüneburg Pilsener
- Lübzer, Lübz
- Feldschlößchen in Dresden ( acquired in 2004 through the acquisition of Holsten-Brauerei. 2011 sold to Frankfurter Brauhaus GmbH)
In Switzerland, Carlsberg, with about 45 percent market share through its subsidiary, acquired in 1999 Feldschlosschen market leader, with the brands:
- Anchor, Rheinfelden AG (until 1996 a dark beer brand in Cardinal in Fribourg, in the 2000s, only a supermarket brand for storage Light )
- Cardinal, Fribourg, including Cardinal Draft and the original Eve Mixed Drink (brewery was closed in June 2011)
- Belts, Bern (brewery closed)
- Feldschlosschen, Rheinfelden AG
- Hürlimann, Zurich (brewery closed)
- Lowenbrau Zurich, Zurich (brewery closed)
- Valaisanne, Sion / Sion
- Warteck, Basel ( brewery closed)
On 31 August 2010, the Company Carlsberg decided to close the site in Fribourg for business reasons.
Brands in the rest of Europe
Carlsberg with its main brands Carlsberg and Tuborg brands and many regional market leader in Northern Europe, Russia and the Baltic States and also holds significant market shares in Southern Europe. Main competitors in the European market are the Dutch Heineken and the Belgian Interbrew.
- Baltika, nearly 1 billion euros (2005 ) Sales made the Carlsberg Group in St. Petersburg, the Baltika Brewery took over together with a Scottish brewery. Baltika has become the market leader in Russia and Eastern Europe after Heineken is the second largest in Europe. The joint venture was established in 1990 in Saint Petersburg.
- Pripps Blå, the market leader in Sweden
- Kronenbourg, the market leader in France
- Karhu, the market leader in Finland
- Ringnes, the market leader in Norway
- Super Bock, the market leader in Portugal
- Okocim, Bosman and Harnas, Poland
- Pirinsko and Shumensko, Bulgaria
- Saku, Estonia
- Spliigen and Bock 1877, Italy
- Troy and Venüs, Turkey
- Lav, Serbia
- PAN, Croatia
- Švyturys market leader in Lithuania
- Aldaris market leader in Latvia
Cultural, scientific and sporting commitment
1876 was, personally the Carlsberg Foundation founded by Jacobsen, in this pooled its cultural patronage. Just two years later, the foundation opened in Frederiksborg Castle in Copenhagen its first museum, the Museum of National History. However, the most important museum of the foundation is the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, which is conducted in collaboration with the Municipality of Copenhagen. It is one of the most important non- royal museums in Denmark.
Another mainstay of the activities of the Foundation is to promote the sciences. Mindful of the fact that the brewery its global success to a large extent the findings of their research department (especially of the Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and Kjeldahlschen determining nitrogen content) is owed to the Foundation promotes that must always keep in the Statute for the majority stake in the brewery, research in the natural sciences, mathematics, philosophy and the social sciences. Particularly in biotechnology, the Foundation is very active here, it operates the Carlsberg Research Center ( Carlsberg Research Centre).
Carlsberg has an extensive involvement in sports sponsorship: For many years campaigned for example Liverpool on his jersey for the Danish beer. Furthermore, the Carlsberg logo adorns the jerseys of Danish clubs Odense BK and FC København, and Asia sponsor Carlsberg the local Golf Tour. Furthermore, Carlsberg was also one of the six EUROTOP sponsors of the European Football Championship 2008. Companies subsidiary Tetley is one of the main sponsors of the English Rugby League.
A tuborg or tuborghat ( " Tuborg hat " ) or tuborgparentes ( " Tuborg parenthesis") is a typographic term in Danish and called a brace. The character got its name based on its shape, reminiscent of the special sun screens that are used for the Tuborg brand in advertising. Another explanation is the similarity with a crown cap.