The Engadine ( Engiadina Romansh, Italian Engadine, derived from rätorom name of the river Inn. En) is a valley in the Swiss canton of Graubünden. It is one of the highest inhabited valleys in Europe and more than 80 km long. It is the upper valley slopes of the Inn and is divided into the Upper and the Lower Engadine. The two sections of the mountain valley are separated by the Punt Ota in Brail.
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The Upper Engadine ( rätorom. Engiadin'Ota ) is of a level, from 1600 to 1800 m high valley floor embossed with lakes ( Engadine lakes: Lake Sils, Silvaplana, Lej da Champfèr and St. Moritz ) of pine and larch forests, as well, particularly in the side valleys of glaciers. Due to the altitude has bottomed high montane to sub-alpine climate and is one of the winterkältesten land of the Alps. The meadows in the valley are bordered by only moderately steep mountain slopes, towering over the usually more rugged snow-capped peaks. To coniferous forests and alpine meadows above extend to the shady slopes in the south; the horizontal boundary line is clearly visible. The Upper Engadine is connected through the Bernina Pass to Poschiavo and the Maloja Pass to the Bergell; connect it to the north of the Julier Pass to the stone above and the Albula Pass the Albula valley. The northeastern part of the Upper Engadine towards the Lower Engadine is called La Plaiv.
Villages in the Upper Engadine
( downhill ): Maloja ( a fraction and former Alp of Bergeller village of Stampa and therefore politically belonging to the Italian-speaking Bergell ), Sils ( Segl ), Silvaplana ( Silvaplauna ), Surlej (belongs to Silvaplana ), Champfèr ( a split fraction by a River Village is divided politically between St. Moritz and Silvaplana ), St. Moritz (San Murezzan ), Celerina ( Schlarigna ), Pontresina ( Puntraschigna ), Samedan, Bever La Punt- Chamues -ch, Madulain, Zuoz, S- chanf, Cinuos -chel ( a fraction of the community S- chanf )
Larger side valleys are at Samedan from the southeast coming down from the Val Bernina Pass Bernina Pontresina with the place and the Val Bever Bever.
The Lower Engadine ( rätorom. Engiadina Bassa) has a significantly greater slope on ( 1610-1019 m). It is narrower and wilder than the Upper Engadine. The Inn rushes over rocks here and rummages through between narrow walls. The wildest of its gorges is the Finstermünz where he leaves the Swiss territory.
The Lower Engadine is connected by Flüelapass Landwassertal at Davos and over the Ofen Pass to the Val Müstair. In addition, since 1999, a rail link to the Prättigau by the Vereinatunnel, which is the only all-season road connection to the rest of the Engadine Switzerland in the Upper Engadine next to the ( limited winter safe ) Julier Pass.
Localities in the Lower Engadine
( downhill ): Brail ( a fraction of the community Zernez ) Zernez, Susch, Lavin, Giarsun (Group of the municipality of Guarda ), Guarda, Bos -cha (Group of the community Ardez ) Ardez, Ftan, Scuol, Scuol, Sent, Ramosch with fractions Vnà, Seraplana and Rasch Vella and Tschlin with fractions Strada and Martina.
Flora and Fauna
Dense fir and pine forests extend to the sloping north slopes of the Engadin up to an altitude of 1800 m, while increasing larch forests are found on the south-facing slopes because of the drought, which reach up even to 2100 m. In the spacious forests of the Engadin living red deer and roe deer, in the mountainous regions of chamois and ibex. In the rocky valleys dwell golden eagles and bearded vultures. Deer, roe deer and chamois are hunted monitored during three weeks in September each year. The ibex are regulated in a special hunt.
Botanically, the Engadine is of considerable wealth, especially the cryptogamic flora. Also of useful minerals ( calamine, galena, silver-bearing lead ores, copper pyrites, etc.) the Engadine is rich; but economically important are the mineral springs in St. Moritz in the upper and of Scuol in the Lower Engadine Scuol.
The Upper Engadine had his own count. Count Dedalrich sold his land in 1139 to the bishopric of Chur, of the 1494 bought the Upper Engadine free. In the Lower Engadine which often crisscross domination and Lehnrechte the owner led to long feuds. In the Grisons turmoil the Engadine was devastated by the Austrians in 1622 and assigned to the same, but returned to frets the following year. The last Austrian possession was Tarasp that came to Graubünden 1815.
The only winter secure connections to the north are the rail tunnel in the Rhaetian Railway. Was it on the existing for over 100 years Albula Railway in winter on a daily basis come to interruptions, which opened in 1999 Vereina tunnel is safe for winter Prättigau. The existing road crossings of Flüela and Albula Pass are closed during the winter months; the Julier Pass can be ensured throughout the year except in snowy winters.
The Engadine was coined centuries by the necessity of youth to emigrate. Best known are the Engadine confectioners in this context.
Culture Historically significant is besides the rich Romansh literature especially the Engadine theater history. An architectural feature of the Engadine is the Engadine house.
The main language in the Lower Engadine and in parts of the Upper Engadine is the Romansh. In the Upper Engadine is computer and spoken in the Lower Engadine Vallader; two Romansh idioms with their own written language, which are collectively called by the Engadinern Romansh Ladin. The Ladin of the Engadin is not to be confused with Ladin languages in northeast Italy. Through the last century strongly arisen tourism and thereby become greater economy in the Engadine showed strong immigration of people who do not speak Romansh. Therefore, in addition to the Romansh also Swiss German is spoken. In parts of the Upper Engadine is why the Romanesque was strongly repressed ( cf. St. Moritz and region). In the Lower Engadine, the displacement of Romansh is less strong, but there is a tendency for this region.
The villages know to this day the tradition of over-and nick-name for the respective settlement.
Due to the over one hundred years strongly arisen tourism Engadine reported a strong immigration of people. The building boom changed the settlement structure and led to urban centers in St. Moritz with its 5600 inhabitants. St. Moritz, located in the middle of the Upper Engadin lake landscape at 1,856 meters above sea level, had already in the early 19th century, a Europe-wide reputation for its mineral springs. The first spa was opened in 1831. Since then, followed by a swanky hotel and later partly also vacation housing. St. Moritz became one of the most famous resorts in the world. On 9 August 1907, opens with the Muottas Muragl train the first funicular.
1932 was the feature film adventure in the Engadine by Harald pure linen, which mainly consists of sports and chase scenes against the backdrop of snow-covered landscape.