Hassan Pirnia

Hassan al Pirnia moshir Dowleh (Persian حسن پیرنیا مشیرالدوله; * 1872, † 1935) was a politician and Prime Minister of Iran. The term of office Hassan Pirnias was characterized by continuous change at the helm of the state. The only constant factor was Defense Minister Reza Khan, later Reza Shah Pahlavi, the Hassan Pirnia should replace on 28 October 1923 as prime minister.


Pirnia Hassan was the eldest son of Khan Nasrollah moshir al Dowleh, a simple writer, who has brought it under Muzaffar al-Din Shah to the Prime Minister.

Hassan attended school in Russia and spoke fluent French. Hassan Pirnia had studied law in Russia. In 1902 he was sent as ambassador Muzaffar al-Din Shah to Russia. Back in Iran, he joined the constitutional movement. Hassan Pirnia worked from large sections of the Constitution of 1906. He had several European constitutions translated into Persian and wrote a comment about the history of the Iranian Constitution and its European roots.

After the death of his father in 1907 he inherited the title moshir Dowleh al. From 1907 to 1908, Foreign Minister Hassan Pirnia and later Minister of Justice.

1915 Hassan Pirnia was the first time Prime Minister. He should take office in the year 1920, 1922 and 1923.

Hassan Pirnia is attributed the merit of having brought the Anglo -Iranian Treaty of 1919 would have been with Iran a British protectorate to case. He delayed the vote in Parliament and refused to accept the contract associated with the loan of 2 million pounds.

After becoming Prime Minister in 1920 Pirnia sent a delegation to Moscow to ask the interrupted after the collapse of Tsarist Russia relations between the Soviet Union and Iran on a new contractual basis. The result was signed in March 1921 Soviet- Iranian treaty of friendship which led to the withdrawal of Soviet troops from the north of Iran.

Another important decision of Hassan Pirnia was the appointment of Mehdi Qoli Khan Hedayat governor of Azerbaijan. Only two governors had been called away from Azerbaijan after their office either did not compete because of the large resistance in the population or had been chased after a few days out of town without having achieved anything. Under the leadership of Sheikh Mohammad Khiabani a separatist movement had formed who wanted to make Azerbaijan an autonomous from the central government area. After the direct negotiations with Khiabani had led to no result, Hedayat ordered on 13 September 1920, the local Cossack unit and the gendarmes arrest Khiabani. After a four- hour-long firefight Khiabani was shot during his arrest.

In northern Iran Pirnia had less success in the crackdown on the separatist movement of Mirza Khan Kutschak. The Persian Cossack Brigade was also performed after the October Revolution of the Russian officers. In the Anglo -Iranian Treaty of 1919 had established the principle that the Russian leadership of the Persian Cossack officers should be replaced by British officers, but Pirnia refused to comply. Instead, ordered the commander of the Cossack Starosselsky attack the Jangali rebels in northern Iran. In mid-August the Cossacks Rasht had taken it but failed important for the replenishment of the rebel port on the Caspian Sea Bandar Anzali take. They lost the decisive battles on 25 August 1920 and had to retreat with heavy losses.

After this defeat, it came over the dismissal of Starosselsky between Hassan Pirnia and the British Ambassador to the dispute. The British insisted on his dismissal. Pirnia Hassan threatened to resign. The British ambassador intervened with Ahmad Shah, who until his departure for Europe demanded a monthly payment of 15,000 Toman, if he should do something in this matter. Obviously one was unanimous. Starosselsky received from the British Imperial Bank of Persia 50,000 Toman in large bills, one of which he handed over 40,000 Toman to Ahmad Shah. Starosselsky left the country, Hassan Pirnia stepped back and Ahmad Shah appointed Sepahdar in October 1920 the new Prime Minister.

Following the resignation Seyyed Zia al Din Tabatabai on May 23, 1921, Ahmad Shah Hassan Pirnia again offered to the Office of the Prime Minister, Hassan Pirnia leaned ab.Er preferred to stay ahead of independent MPs. Ahmad Qavam took over the premiership. Reza Khan, later Reza Shah Pahlavi, was Secretary of Defense. The term of office Qavams should only last until February 1922. After all Qavam had reached that Arthur Millspaugh could be brought into the country, which meant that the Iranian government decreed in the subsequent years of the financial resources that were really necessary to build an ordered polity.

After the resignation Qavams took over again Hassan Pirnia in February 1922 again the premiership. Reza Khan remained Minister of Defense. Another important appointment should Abdolhossein Teymourtash, who took over the post of Minister of Justice. Target Pirnias was a comprehensive judicial reform. It should be the tenure Pirnias but not come to that. Due to the ongoing tensions between Reza Khan and Hassan Pirnia on the amount of the defense budget Pirnia resigned on May 25, 1922, Ahmad Qavam took over in June 1922 again the premiership. Reza Khan had continued the official duties of the Prime Minister by Qavam until the acquisition of the item. Also in the cabinet Qavam remained Reza Khan of Defense. Reza Khan had greatly strengthened by its success in quelling separatist movements in the north and west of Iran and the establishment of a powerful army, the discretionary power of the central government in Tehran over the provinces. In the reign Qavams he wanted to take action against the separatist movements in the south of Iran. An important goal Qavams was to reach an economic agreement with the Soviet Union. After this was due to the Soviet demand for an oil concession in northern Iran, the Qavam not intended to grant, failed, Qavam resigned on 26 January 1923. On February 14, 1923 Hassan Mostofi took over the premiership. Reza Khan was Secretary of Defense. Mohammad Ali Foroughi was foreign minister. Hassan Mostofi had from the beginning a strong opposition in parliament, led by Hassan Modarres. In addition, lacked the backing of Ahmad Shah, so Mostofi resigned in June 1923 and Hassan Pirnia prime minister took over again. Reza Khan would like to become Prime Minister, but his candidacy was completely hopeless at this time, as he had no majority in parliament. Ahmad Shah was also at this time against a Prime Minister Reza Khan. So Reza Khan was Secretary of Defense. After Hassan Pirnia however, already on October 23, 1923 submitted his resignation, Ahmad Shah had no choice, certain Reza Khan on October 28, Prime Minister.

After his retirement from active politics Hassan Pirnia wrote a book about the pre-Islamic history of Iran.