Craiova ( German Krajowa ) is the largest city in the historical region of Oltenia, and residence of the county Dolj in Romania.
Craiova is located in the west of the Wallachian Plain, on the left bank of the river Jiu ( Shield ).
In the area of the present town existed for about 400-350 BC, a Dacian settlement called Pelendava. At the beginning of the 2nd century AD, the Romans established a camp here. This is mentioned in the Tabula Peutingeriana.
The name Craiova is of Slavic and means " royal city ". Craiova was since the 15th century, the residence of the Ban of Craiova. The rulers belonged to the noble family Craioveşti, emerged from the several princes of Wallachia. To her possession were more than 100 villages in the Lesser Wallachia. From 1718 to 1738 Craiova belonged to Austria. 1735 lived in Craiova approximately 4,000 inhabitants. In 1801 it was sacked by the Turks. 1858 united the principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia. This Craiova lost its function as traditional second capital of the Principality of Wallachia near Bucharest. However, the city was an important trade center and at the time of union with 25,000 inhabitants, is the second largest city in the country after Bucharest.
In World War Craiova was occupied from 1916 to 1918 by German and Austro-Hungarian troops.
For a long time the city of crafts and small production was affected. Since the early 1960s, began a planned industrialization.
The city had to Census 2002 302.601 inhabitants. Of these, about 292,000 Romanians, 9,000 Roma and 200 Hungarians, Greeks, Italians, and German.
The average annual population growth is 0.8 %. 13.7 % of people are unemployed. 15.5% of the population is under 15 years, 3.0% are over 75 years old.
In January 2011, the population was 269 506.
Craiova is an important railway hub in southwest Romania. From the city, lead railway lines to Orşova, Calafat, Pitesti and Bucharest. Through the city extend the European Routes 70 and 79 seven kilometers east of the city center of Craiova Airport.
- House of Bane (Casa Băniei ), built in 1699 under Prince Constantin Brâncoveanu. The oldest secular building in the city. From 1718 to 1738 the seat of the Austrian administration.
- Church of Saint Demetrius ( Biserica Sfântul Dumitru ), built in 1651 under Prince Matei Basarab.
- Church of St. Elijah ( Biserica Sfântul Ilie ), built in 1720 under the Earl Ilie Otetelisanu.
- Art Museum, in a palace in the French neo-baroque style. It displays paintings by Nicolae Tonitza, Nicolae Grigorescu and other Romanian painters, but also works of Dutch, Flemish, French and Italian schools, as well as the famous sculpture "The Kiss" by Constantin Brancusi.
- Hotel Minerva, built in the early 20th century in a bizarre mix of styles from Gothic Revival and Art Nouveau.
- University, built in 1890 as the Palace of Justice in the neoclassical style. Since 1966, the seat of the University, which was at times also internationally known for its football club Universitatea Craiova.
- The " Elena Cuza " National College, founded in 1833 under the name of " finishing school Lazaro - Otetelisanu " by Iordache Otetelisanu, the first school for girls in the country.
- Prefecture, county seat of Dolj, an imposing building, which was built in 1907-1910 in typical Romanian Neo - Brâncoveanu style.
- National Theatre, a modern building from the 1970s.
- Opera House ( Teatrul de Opéra şi Elena Opereta Teodorini )
- Philharmonic ( Filarmonica Oltenia )
- Romanescu Park, a 90 hectare landscape park laid out according to the plans of the Parisian architect E. Redont, which at the World Exhibition in Paris in 1900 was awarded the gold medal.
Sons and daughters of the town
- Michael the Brave ( Michael the Brave ) was Prince of Wallachia ( 1593-1601 ), of Transylvania ( 1599-1600 ), and of Moldavia in 1600
- Petrache Poenaru (1799-1875), inventor of the fountain pen
- Theodor Aman (1831-1891), painter
- Titu Maiorescu (1840-1917), writer, Prime Minister
- Alexandru Macedonski (1854-1920), writer
- Nicolae Romanescu (1854-1931), mayor, politicians
- Nicolae Titulescu (1882-1941), diplomat, president of the League of the United Nations (1930-1931)
- Jean Negulescu (1900-1993), American painter and director of Romanian descent
- Sever Burada (1896-1968), painter of Romanian school
- Corneliu Baba (1906-1997), painter
- Ion Tuculescu (1910-1962), painter
- Despina Petecel - Theodoru ( born 1949 ), musicologist
- Sorin Lerescu (* 1953 ), Composer
- Adrian Bumbescu ( b. 1960 ), football player
- Pavel Badea (born 1967 ), football player
- Ovidiu Stîngă (born 1972 ), football player
- Gabriel Popescu (born 1973 ), football player
- Adrian Ilie ( born 1974 ), football player
- Ionut Rada ( b. 1982 ), football player
- Constantin Grecu (* 1988), football player
- Valerică Găman (* 1989), football player
- Silviu Lung Jr. ( * 1989), football player
- Andreea Părăluţă (* 1994), football national player
- Finland Kuopio, Finland
- Macedonia Skopje, Macedonia
- France Nanterre, France
- Bulgaria Vratsa, Bulgaria
- China People's Republic of Shiyan, China
- Sweden Uppsala, Sweden
- France Lyon, France
Sfântu - Dumitru Church
Nicolae Romanescu Park