Transport in Berlin
Public transport in Berlin consists of a well-developed high-speed rail system with S- and U -Bahn and RE and RB trains. Politically, due mainly restricted to the eastern half of the city, there are also a large tram network. City buses have besides secondary supplementary and pre functions for the railway network, particularly in the western parts of the city also has a primary importance. Some transport tasks to be performed by the Spree and Havel passenger ferries. Public transport in Berlin is part of Berlin -Brandenburg Transport Association, whose tariff rules throughout the city and are beyond.
The public transport is now carried out mainly by two transport companies on behalf of the State of Berlin: the state-owned Berlin Transport Authority ( BVG), a public institution and the S- Bahn Berlin GmbH, which is a wholly owned subsidiary of Deutsche Bahn AG. In addition, the DB Regio and ODEG meet with regional trains important tasks in rapid transit. Responsible for the organization of public transport in Berlin is the Senate Department for Urban Development, which gives guidelines for the offer and the services the company and takes over a part of the operating costs.
- 2.1 Rail transport
- 2.2 bus
- 2.3 Ship and Ferry
The history of transport in Berlin
The tradition of double-decker buses began in the 1920s, 1925, the first double-decker with a closed upper deck to the then General Berliner Omnibus AG were delivered ( ABOAG ). In Spandau Steglitz and it was from the 1930s trolleybuses, they were 1952 ( Spandau ) or 1965 ( Steglitz ) abolished.
After the Second World War, there was initially a common line network for the rail and bus. In the early 1950s began the separation of the tram and bus traffic, however, the U- and S-Bahn to the wrong construction of the Wall in August 1961 throughout. Then there were two metro transit routes across the East Berlin district of Mitte belonging that were passed with the exception Friedrichstrasse station without stopping (→ ghost station ).
Subsequently, the transport developed very differently in the two halves of the city: In West Berlin, the private transport was promoted and placed in local traffic on the bus and the subway. To this end, the tram has been pushed back until finally the last tram line was closed on 2 October 1967. Since the S -Bahn was up 8 January 1984 solely operated by the Deutsche Reichsbahn and boycotted by the majority of West Berliners (→ S-Bahn boycott ), continued to West Berlin policy transport in urban areas on the subway as the only rail transport. It therefore created several new routes that ran partly parallel to S- Bahn network.
High ridership on the buses, partly because of the replacement function for the S -Bahn, required on central lines very tight clock frequencies, "E" buses ( used cars) supplemented therefore large numbers of the regular timetable, and double-decker buses were of course on all major lines. The fastest bus drove on as a replacement for the S-Bahn, the AVUS ( line 66-1984 ) and the Berlin ring road ( line 65).
In the eastern part of the S-Bahn and trams were the main modes of transport. Since the subway was only separated on two lines only and their central institutions in the West, there were significant vehicle and, initially, maintenance problems here. An extension was made in 1973 by Friedrich field until zoo and 1989 continue to Honow. In the double-decker bus were pushed back in time, on the streets of the 1980s eventually dominated storey Ikarus buses.
In the eastern part of Berlin was shut down several tram routes in the context of auto -oriented transportation planning in the 1950s and 1960s, especially in the districts of Mitte and the area between the Spree and the western border of Treptow. 1967, the tram has stopped at the Alexanderplatz with the completion of new construction. The radially converging tram routes have been summarized in the minor road and tangentially past the place. In the 1970s and early 1980s took place in the outskirts of route extensions. In the construction of new housing estates in Marzahn, Hohenschonhausen and Heller village new tram lines played a significant role in development. These two new S-Bahn routes originated by Ahrensfelde and Wartenberg.
The tariffs were subsidized in East Berlin, as in the GDR as a whole, the state. A ticket without Umsteigeberechtigung cost for tram, bus or metro to the turn 20 Pfennig. Tickets could be purchased from number boxes in advance or in the vehicle or on the subway entrances. Especially for tourists there were days tickets to a compared to the normal fare slightly raised price. S-Bahn ticket pricing level 1 could be used in the urban area for other transportation. There was graduated rates up to 1.30 marks in the price level 8 A ride from Alexanderplatz to Potsdam via the outer ring cost 70 pence ( price level 4).
In West Berlin, the fares have been adjusted to reflect the price increase. For collective development of the S -Bahn in the western part see article history of the Berlin S-Bahn.
History of the excursion bus
The first trip Linen set up by the ABOAG 1907 by the Great Berlin Motor Omnibus Company and a little later. They associated from Berlin or its suburbs to the former area, being Nollendorfplatz - Paulsborn or station Wannsee - Machnower lock. From 1927 reached the ABOAG lines, lines as a triangle called (due out in line license plate triangle ) or remote trip lines for that time relatively distant targets such as Rheinberg and Lehnin also. After the merger, the BVG this was continued. Serves goals were still in the countryside on tracks like Vinetastraße - Summt and Turmstrasse - Teltow.
Due to the German division of the BVG (West) could use only destinations within West Berlin. A line from Theodor- Heuss-Platz U -Bahn station Wannsee on the Havelchaussee ( butterfly line with a butterfly instead of a line number) should restrict private transport, the line Wannsee Peacock Island took advantage of a blocked to car traffic road through the forest. The buses wrong at special rates. The VEB Kombinat Berlin Transport Authority (BVB ) drove on targets in the surrounding areas. It was separated into excursion lines as Vinetastraße - Zühlsdorf and tend to be longer trip distance lines as Antonplatz - Tiefensee ( Gamengrund ) or train station Berlin Frankfurter Allee (formerly Stalin Allee S-Bahn ) - Bad Saarow. The longest line was Pankow, Church - Schildow - Hohen Neuendorf - Marwitz - Kremmen - Beetz -Sommerfeld.
The lines in West Berlin were later classified into regular service, the " triangle lines " is set in the east after the fall of 1992.
Immediately after the change in the GDR was begun in the gaps that existed within the city to close. First and foremost was able to provide a continuous traffic on the city railway S-Bahn already on 2 July 1990. In the following years were more gaps, closed especially as the surrounding Brandenburg. The subway had already closed all the gaps in the network until 1995. In the same year a first tram line was built in the former western part of the city, it was extended for another piece of 1997. Further expansion of the tram and metro network is, however sluggish, as the coffers of the city are empty. Only at the S-Bahn larger extensions and reconnections of route sections are in prospect.
The fastest public transport system in Berlin was, until the early 1990s, the S-Bahn. Today rapid RE and RB trains over the rehabilitated rail and the north -south link connecting up to 40 km distant parts of the city. Double -decker buses were partially displaced on the West Network in favor of disabled monoplane and articulated buses. Some of the most important routes are also touristy but still now and again served in the eastern districts with biplanes.
In December 2004, a "metro network " was introduced, consisting of Metrobus and Metro Tram. Was to be achieved so that a tender quality that is comparable to a high-speed railway. A characteristic feature of the metro lines that ( during the day at least ten- minute intervals ) and 24 -hour operation, in principle, have to learn no timetable for dense clock sequence. All Metro tram lines have emerged from one to three pre-existing tram lines, therefore some metro tram lines bifurcate to two different termini. Some of the route was simplified. Metro lines have today as a backbone of the surface mesh away from the U- and S-Bahn of outstanding importance and dip partially into high-speed rail network plans of the BVG.
The urban rail network consists of rail routes of long-distance and regional or local transport (RE and RB trains), the rapid transit systems in the S - and U -Bahn and a tram network. Especially the trains running in the dense clock RE trains on the Berlin Stadtbahn be used by passengers as well as a rapid transit or rapid train. The S-Bahn until 1990 in the two halves of the city at that time the fastest means of transport, today offer the RE trains within the city limits in some cases substantially faster connections also at the uniform rate of composite.
Important RE / RB- lines for the urban area are:
Because of political reasons very different transport development of the western and eastern districts from the 1950s, the tram runs mainly in the eastern parts of the city, so in the former East Berlin. The tram network, the Group today MetroTram ("M" before the line number) and regular tram lines. The latter are not operating continuously day and night and usually have limited impact on clock.
Underground and S- Bahn trains throughout the nights Friday / Saturday, Saturday / Sunday and most public holidays. During the other nights, the night bus N1 to N3 and N5 used instead of the U -Bahn to N9 on partially different routes ( besides the other night buses ).
The city bus service is operated by the BVG. It consists of Metrobus ("M" before the line number), Express Bus ("X" before the line number) and normal city bus lines. A special night bus service also complements the night served "Metro Network" (Metro Tram and Metro bus ) and replaced the week, the S- and U -Bahn.
Ship and Ferry
The BVG operates six ferry lines, some of which are traveled by ships of the star and circle navigation. This includes particularly worth mentioning is the F10 from Wannsee Station to Old Kladow.