The German wave (short: DW ) is the state 's international broadcaster of the Federal Republic of Germany and a member of the ARD. The German sites are located in Bonn and Berlin, the location in Bonn serves as headquarters. The shaft transmits ad-free in different languages. Deutsche Welle include the radio program DW radio, the TV program DW- TV, an Internet site in 30 languages under the name DW.de and DW Akademie. Because of its mission to serve abroad, never sent the German wave in Germany itself on ultra-short waves (FM ), but could - up to the extensive task of the transmitter - received via the much more far-reaching medium and short waves around the world.
The station grew out of the German wave GmbH, which was founded by Ernst Ludwig Voss in Berlin in August 1924, and on January 7, 1926 regularly went on the air. Owners were initially to 70% of the Reichs- Rundfunk -Gesellschaft and 30%, the state of Prussia. From 1931 sent the German wave of the Berlin House of Broadcasting, the German wave GmbH was officially transferred to the transmitter Germany GmbH on 1 January 1933.
The German wave sees himself in the tradition of the first German international broadcaster, the world broadcaster of the Weimar Republic. The world radio stations in 1933 converted by the Nazis for propaganda purposes in the German short -wave transmitter. Often, the German wave is confused with the Germany radio, but which satisfies a fundamentally different order and primarily serves the domestic market.
The task of the DW, it is in accordance with § 4 German - wave - law, to make Germany as its roots in European culture and nation liberal democratic rule of law, written of course - and overall promote understanding and exchange between cultures and peoples. This makes it one of the bearers of foreign cultural policy of the Federal Republic of Germany.
In detail their tasks in the German - wave - law are regulated. The planning their tasks assumes the DW itself for a period of four years. This task planning it passes to the federal government. Including the Broadcasting Council and the Bundestag then the DW decides on this task planning and reasons for it. Under the scheme, DW is obligated as a state independent transmitter the free journalism.
The broadcaster of federal law DW is a nonprofit institution under public law. As such, it is subject to supervision by the Federal Government. To preserve the freedom of the press, the DW however, a technical oversight is excluded; the federal government exercises only a legal supervision.
Although the DW as the other public service broadcasters is a public institution, it receives no license fees. The financing of the DW is primarily controlled by a grant from taxpayers' money from the federal budget. The German wave receives its funding through the Federal Government Commissioner for Culture and Media, which in turn is assigned to the section of the Federal Chancellor and the Federal Chancellery in the federal budget. In addition, there is the Deutsche Welle allowed to obtain other revenues, such as from advertising and sponsorship ( in the diction of the German - wave - Law " Sponsor "). The budget in 2012 was around 271 million euros.
DW Akademie is the international center of the Deutsche Welle for media development, media consulting and journalism training and education. She works with partner stations, organizations and universities around the world to perform various training and advice to the media. The particular focus is on building and strengthening of media in developing, emerging and transition countries. Financed the work is mainly by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development.
At the sites in Bonn and Berlin DW Akademie performs professional media training. Internationally experienced media experts prepare these before training professionals and executives from politics, business and organizations for public appearances at home or abroad and intercultural competence.
The internship training DW is located in the DW Academy. The young journalists through here a 18- month training and are trained in the three fields of television, radio and online. In cooperation with the University of Bonn and the Bonn- Rhein-Sieg, DW Academy offers the Master's program " International Media Studies ".
Director DW Akademie is Christian Gramsch, until November 1, 2013 Multimedia Director regions of the DW. His predecessor Gerda Meuer, who has worked among others as a correspondent for the developmental news agency Inter News Service and as deputy editor on the radio program of Deutsche Welle, since 1 November 2013 Program Director of the station.
DW Akademie goes back to the German training center shaft ( DWAZ ). This took up its work in 1965 and was initially provided as a tool for media promotion for Africa, Asia and Latin America. In the same year the first training session for three radio technician of Radio Rwanda took place in Cologne. Since 1970 there is also training for television employees. Founded in Berlin for DWAZ TV is affiliated with the Sender Freies Berlin.
In Tunis was in 1971 the first training outside of Germany takes to prepare sports journalists on the coverage of the Olympic Games in Munich. After German reunification, the DWAZ offered in 1990 for the first time in training for media professionals from Eastern Europe. Twelve broadcast journalists from Poland and Hungary took part in a management course in Germany. In 1992, the DWAZ India with a workout at All India Radio.
In 1996, two training centers for radio and television under the umbrella of Deutsche Welle were bundled. The merged institutions were called henceforth training center DWFZ. As a result of restructuring was created in 2004 DW Akademie. In it, the DWFZ and the areas of journalism education and training of DW bundle.
The 1950s to 1980s
The German wave passed on 3 May 1953, German-speaking radio on short wave for the first time on the air. The message of greetings "to the fellow countrymen in the world," was spoken by the then Federal President Theodor Heuss. A few weeks later, on 11 June 1953, the Treaty on the establishment of common shortwave program " German Wave" was signed between the members of the ARD. Responsibility for the program was initially at the former North West German Broadcasting ( NWDR ), later the West German Radio (WDR) in Cologne, so that its respective director was also responsible for the " German Wave" responsible. Just a year later launched the German wave radio broadcasts in English, French, Spanish, Portuguese and Polish.
In 1960, the " German Wave" by federal law an autonomous institution under public law was. Passed by the German Bundestag on October 26, 1960 Law on the Establishment of broadcasters of federal law by November 29, 1960 stipulated that the German wave and short wave radio broadcasts for foreign countries and the Germany radio also, established by the Act broadcasts (all ) for Germany and other European countries should produce. With the entry into force of the Act on 16 December 1960, the two new institutions were in accordance with § 33 as built. The mission of the ARD to the WDR, to operate the " German Wave" as a Community body went out. However, the DW based in Cologne joined on June 7, 1962, the ARD, so that the original link of the ARD was prepared with the DW again.
In 1962, the radio program was expanded. Since then, the German wave sent in addition to Persian, Turkish, Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Hungarian, Serbian and Croatian. 1963 follow Kiswahili and Hausa for Africa, Indonesian and Bulgarian, Romanian and Slovenian. In the same year the DW sent for the first time film prints for television. From 1964, the DW sent in Greek, Italian, Hindi and Urdu, Pashto and Dari from 1970 on.
1974 began in Cologne, the construction work on the new Broadcasting House, designed by the planning group Stieldorf On Raderberggürtel for the DW and the DLF, whose inauguration took place in 1980.
On 1 April 1992, the German wave with the German - and English-language TV DW-TV from Berlin started in the active age of television. The programs will be broadcast via satellite and expanded in the following years. It is now also sent in Spanish and Arabic. In DW-TV that a few years previously started RIAS - TV went on. Began in 1992 with the DW also broadcasts in Albanian.
In advance of the new broadcasting structure of the federation, which led in 1994 to the dissolution of Germany Radio ( DLF ) in the broadcaster Germany as an independent radio broadcasting corporation or its transfer, the German wave In 1993, some foreign language broadcasts of the DLF. A year later, the DW started under " www.dwelle.de " their web presence and was the first public broadcaster in Germany, which was represented on the World Wide Web.
With German reunification in 1990 the transmission mode of Radio Berlin International ( RBI), the Foreign Service of the GDR was adjusted. Some employees of RBI were henceforth at Deutsche Welle work, and also parts of the broadcast technology, including the transmission plant in Nauen and their frequencies, were taken.
The DW is suffering from massive financial and personnel cuts. Within five years, the budget was reduced to 2004 by about 75 million euros. The number of posts has been reduced since 1994 from 2200 to 1200. The autumn of 2005 current Federal Government, however, re-enforced an increase in the budget adopted by the Bundestag in the 2006 budget. In the late 1990s introduced the DW numerous editors. In 1998 she finished her offer to Danish, Norwegian, Dutch, Italian and Sanskrit. The end of 1999 was followed by Japanese, Slovak, Slovenian, Spanish, Czech and Hungarian. As for the Spanish editorial, only the radio was set. The reason for the cuts, DW gave to the lack of demand in the target countries. In particular, however, the second round of cuts was also due to the budget cuts of the Federation ( see above).
In 2000, programs began in the Ukrainian language, and in 2001 the DW started with the broadcast of the television program " German TV", which was initially marketed only in North America via pay-TV platforms, and aired as a full program from 2002. However, just could therefore not a sufficient audience to be won, so that the transmitter in early 2006 ceased its operation. The TV DW-TV is on the former " German TV " program space since spread in North America. In 2002, the German wave launched its Arabic -language TV service. Via Nilesat it is to be received in more than 20 countries.
On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the transmitter in 2003 ( ceremony was on 27 June ) drew the German wave from Cologne to Bonn in the Schürmann -Bau in federal district around. One reason was the asbestos in the premises of the old Broadcasting House. The relocation costs were estimated in the Annual Report 2002 with more than 15 million euros. Here now the radio programs are produced. The television programs Deutsche Welle come from Berlin. The online service of Deutsche Welle is produced in Berlin and Bonn and offers content in 30 languages.
The Bundestag adopted on 28 October 2004 a new DW- law that, in contrast to other public service programs defined the German wave as three media, thus making the online presence DW.de become an equal medium next to DW-TV and DW- Radio. Since 2004, the German wave by an international jury awards the Weblog Awards The BOBs.
Several times, the transponder of DW-TV was disrupted intentionally to Hotbird, last from 10 to 13 February 2010 on the occasion of the 31st anniversary of the Islamic revolution. According to the satellite operator Eutelsat could clearly localize the jammer in the vicinity of Iran.
2006 employed the transmitter 1444 employees. 2011, there were about 1,500 per permanent employees and freelancers.
On 7 April 2011, the German Bundestag passed a new task planning for the station. The divisions radio, television and online will be merged by 2013. The radio program will be further reduced. The contents are to be primarily mediated through the television and via the Internet. Even before there was talk of a only one-hour broadcast loop that should still remain. The broadcasting on shortwave in Europe remain still until the end of Sendermiet agreements exist. The debate of the Left Party, which had voted against the draft as a single, especially criticized the fact that the transmitter should vote in designing the program with the Foreign Office, the Ministry of Defence and the Ministry of Economic Cooperation. The German Association of Journalists criticized that even in censored media markets easier " completely restrict " information sites on the Internet as radio programs. The German Cultural Council had when setting the shortwave broadcasting end of October 2011 indicate that no other frequency range having such a large range as the short wave and " sufficiently autonomous from Germany radiate out into the world " could: " The Internet is not a safe alternative to short-wave because it can be censored by interfering with the recipient countries, disabled and even turned off completely. Especially in a time of social upheaval, not only in the Arab world, it is reckless to waive such autonomous transmission medium such as the short wave for the broadcast of the German program. "
On February 6, 2012, the German wave underwent a complete relaunch and since then has been in the Announcements abbreviation DW stronger than ever in the foreground. During the relaunch was the Spanish-language broadcasting route for Latin America, DW ( Latinoamérica), extended daily from two to 20 hours. At the same time, the new online offerings under the domain www.dw.de was relaunched.
The DW beamed since early 2007 from their programs in the shortwave range of the location Woofferton in England by the provider VT Communications. The previous station in Germany - the shortwave transmitter Wertachtal which are owned by the Media Broadcast - are no longer used. The last location in Germany, of which the DW sent, was the large radio station Nauen of Media Broadcast. The shortwave center Jülich was abandoned several years ago.
The DW operated several relay stations, including in Trincomalee - Sri Lanka, Kigali - Rwanda and in Sines - Portugal. From the shortwave relay in Sines kHz programs were broadcast in DRM mode among other things, on 3995. Transmitter in the LW, MW and FM range were not used for the transmission of programs by Deutsche Welle in Germany. In contrast, even medium-wave transmitter were on some foreign sites the DW, such as the 1996 shut down relay station Cyclops in Malta, are used. Is also no longer used, the relay station in Antigua in the Caribbean, since the DW has set the shortwave broadcasts to North and South America.
In Europe it was usually sufficient to good reception of the German program on the shortwave frequency 6075 kHz (49 meter band ) was possible.
The broadcasting of the linear radio program on shortwave and via live stream and via satellite was set on October 29, 2011. It offers remain as audio-on -demand via the website of the institution. Some African services provisionally be aired until 2013 on shortwave.
DW confirmed reception reports with QSL cards.