Guglielmo ( 1924 Marchese ) Marconi, FRSA [ ɡuʎʎɛlmo marko ː ni ] ( born April 25, 1874 in Bologna, † July 20, 1937 in Rome ) was an Italian radio pioneer, entrepreneur and Nobel laureate (1909, physics, together with Ferdinand Braun).
Guglielmo Marconi was born the second son of Giuseppe Marconi and Italian landowner whose native of Ireland Mrs. Annie Jameson.
On March 16, 1905 Marconi married Beatrice O'Brien, daughter of the 14th Baron Inchiquin of. The marriage produced three children, daughters Degna and Gioia and the son Giulio come. The marriage was divorced in 1924.
His second wife Marconi married on June 16, 1927 Maria Cristina Bezzi Scali, 1930, the daughter of Maria Elettra Elena Anna was born. Marconi was on his second marriage 52 years old and almost twice as old as his wife. In 1994, she died and was buried in the mausoleum of the villa Griffone in Pontecchio at her husband's side.
Marconi received a private education in Bologna, Florence and Leghorn. Even as a boy he was interested in physical and electrical science and studied the works of James Clerk Maxwell, Heinrich Hertz, Augusto Righi, Oliver Joseph Lodge, Alexander Stepanovich Popov and others.
As President of the Royal Italian Academy Marconi was a member of the Fascist Great Council. In 1928 he became president of the Italian National Council for Sciences, 1930 President of the Royal Italian Academy of Sciences and in 1931 a member of the Vatican's Pontifical Academy of Sciences.
On July 19, 1937 Marconi suffered a stroke in Rome, where he died the following day. With an act of state, he was first buried there and, after the completion of a mausoleum at the family headquarters, the villa Griffone in Pontecchio near Bologna in October 1941, there. Marconi was revered in his home and in Italy there are very few places that does not have a " Via Marconi " ( Marconi Street). However, he achieved his greatest commercial success in England, there are also the most original documents and objects.
From a young age he was interested particularly electricity. Recent studies show that he has dealt with improving the performance of batteries. When he studied the writings of Heinrich Hertz, Marconi himself turns to the wireless telegraphy and thus applies with Nikola Tesla as a pioneer of wireless communication. In 1895, he started on the estate of his father, Villa Griffone at Bologna, with laboratory experiments. In the summer of 1895, he also hired some of his first attempts over 2.5 km in Salvan in the Swiss Alps. 1896 Marconi built a "device for the detection and registration of electric oscillations " by Alexander Stepanovich Popov in and let this in June 1896 patent before Popov.
Later he moved his laboratory to the chalk cliffs of the Isle of Wight, had his system in the UK patent (British Patent No. 12039 ) and founded in 1897, the company Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company Limited. based in London. On March 27, 1899, came to the first wireless link across the English Channel from the South Foreland Lighthouse ( Lighthouse South Foreland ) at Dover to Wimereux. On December 12, 1901, the first transatlantic radio reception of a signal ( the Morse code letter S ) managed from Poldhu on the Lizard Peninsula in Cornwall on Signal Hill in St. John's, Newfoundland. The following year, Marconi was able to test messages transmitted in both directions across the Atlantic Ocean and founded the American Marconi Wireless Corporation, based in New York. On January 18, 1903 succeeded the first public transatlantic communication: Marconi exchanged by the Marconi Wireless Station in Cape Cod, Massachusetts greetings between President Theodore Roosevelt and King Edward VII of England from. The system was taken over by the Navy. Also from the southwest Irish Mizen Peninsula Marconi communicated with the passing ship traffic in the Atlantic.
On June 26, 1905 Iceland received the first telegram of its history, even before a submarine cable was laid.
Since 1907, was from the West of Ireland Derrygimla place at Clifden a transatlantic wireless telegraph service to the public. The transmitting station was destroyed during the Irish Civil War in 1922. In 1909, Marconi was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics together with Ferdinand Braun. Later on, he dealt with the application of short - and microwaves.
He succeeded in the early days of wireless connection to the sea almost to build a world monopoly. Opponent in the art were mainly German developments by Ferdinand Braun (Siemens, Telefunken ) and Adolf Slaby ( AEG).
Along with Pope Pius XI. and Giuseppe Gianfranceschi SJ he was one of the creators of Vatican Radio, which commenced operations on 21 September 1930.
1924 Marconi was proposed by the fascist government by king Victor Emmanuel III. knighted and received the title of Marchese ( German: Graf, Marquis ).
On December 10, 1909, he was awarded with the German physicist Ferdinand Braun the Nobel Prize for physics.
As Marconi died, was exposed in his memory all the radio traffic for two minutes. In honor of his achievements is after him, the asteroid ( 1332 ) Marconia and a lunar crater on the moon back, named. The community Sasso Marconi where the villa Griffoni -Marconi - today's Marconi Museum - is located, bears his name. Likewise, the international airport of the Italian city of Bologna was named after Guglielmo Marconi. In memory of him be registered annually Amateur Radio Contest Marconi memorial contest is called. In the Italian language radio operator is referred to as Marco Ista.