50.297261 - 4.899737Koordinaten: 50 ° 17 ' 50 "N, 4 ° 53 ' 59 " W
Cornwall [ kɔ ː nwəl ] ( Cornish: Kernow [ kɛrnɔʊ̯ ], dt and Cornwall or outdated grain Wales or Cornwall ) is a county and the most southwestern part of the country in the UK part of the country England.
- 7.1 Geology and landscape
- 7.2 Pre- and early historical monuments
- 7.3 gardens
- 7.4 Places and Architecture
Cornwall is a peninsula that is bordered on the east by Devon. Border river, the Tamar. In Cornwall there is the westernmost and southernmost point of England, namely, Land's End and Lizard Point ( at The Lizard Peninsula).
Cornwall is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel and the Celtic Sea on three sides by water. Rough, steep cliffs, alternating with long beaches and picturesque bays (English Cove ), characterize the coastal landscape.
The highest point in Cornwall at 420 m ASL is Brown Willy.
Main access roads to the east are the A30 and the A38. A car ferry connects Plymouth to Torpoint. The main railway line runs from London to the south coast. The route ends in Penzance.
The climate is maritime temperate with much rainfall, the winters very mild (influence of the North Atlantic Drift ). This also Mediterranean plants can grow sheltered from the wind. Due to the climatic peculiarities, there are numerous well-known gardens with subtropical plants.
Prehistory and history
Cornwall has hundreds of ancient monuments. They range from the underground basement as " fogous " known about Cairns and Entrance Graves, grave mound, barrow, stones with inscriptions up to quoits (portal tombs ( dolmens ) ) and Promontory Forts, of the "Gateway enclosures" designated facilities to Dartmoor pounds, stone circles, stone rows and / or menhirs.
Cornwall has been inhabited since the Paleolithic Age. In the Neolithic farmers and fishermen of megalithic migrated, the dolmens left at Bodmin and Penwith. At the end of the Neolithic new immigrants who dominated the production of cups and developed the production of bronze came.
In the 6th century BC the Celts from the east came here in the country and brought the art of iron making and editing with. In the year 43 AD, the Romans conquered Britain and ruled the country until the end of the 4th century. The complex of Chysauster is a relic from that time.
In the following period the Celts warred with each other until they were pacified by the legend of King Arthur. The Arthurian legend, King Arthur was in the in Cornwall Tintagel Castle Castle begotten, but this is from the historical point of view untenable: The castle dates from the 12th century proved; the historic core of the Arthurian legends but situates the research of today's unanimous about the year 500 AD in the context of migration of peoples.
In the 5th century, the Christianization of Cornwall started by Irish, Welsh and Breton missionaries.
Also, during the Anglo- Saxon period of England Cornwall remained Celtic. The conquest of England in 1066 by the Normans under their leader William the Conqueror in 1072 also brought Cornwall under Norman rule. However, the Cornishmen received their language and identity. The English king Edward III. made to the county of Cornwall with a certain special status.
During the Middle Ages Cornwall was not the only inhabited part of present-day England from the Anglo-Saxons, but remained Celtic. 1858 had the Attorney General to the Duchy of Cornwall Sir George Harrison, performed in a dispute over the coastal waters between Cornwall and the English crown, Cornwall is a Pfalz State which was extraterritorially against the English crown. Today, Cornwall is administratively treated as a county of England.
The Cornish economy was based on traditional occupations such as fishing and mining. The decline of these areas also led to major economic problems.
Agriculture still has a high status in Cornwall. The share of regional gross value added in 2003 was 4%. The share of industry was 22 %; the largest share of services with 74%. The service will be expanded in the future even further and provide more jobs.
The dependence of the economy in Cornwall tourism is significant and is already at a level of about 25%.
Cornwall is the poorest region in the UK. Therefore, it is also supported by funds from the Economic Development Programme of the European Union.
Unemployment, which has traditionally been quite high in the region has decreased dramatically over the last 15 years.
Cornwall is a very interesting region for tourism due to the pristine landscape, the rugged cliffs, the mile-long fine sand beaches, mild climate and numerous attractions.
Only in recent years Cornwall was opened up to tourists. For example, disused mines have been converted to visitor mines. Therefore, the number of visitors increased steadily from 1993 to 2003. 2003 visited five million tourists visited the country, most of which came from the UK, only four percent from abroad. Among the centers of tourism, the count for its beaches and clear waters multiple award-winning St. Ives, which has as an artist colony also a branch of the Tate Gallery in London, the famous seaside resort of Penzance and the very popular with surfers, Newquay. In addition to numerous Bed -and- Breakfast Accommodations Cornwall also offers a great selection of campsites.
Cornwall was the main source of tin in the Bronze Age and Antiquity. The tin was shipped to the bronze production in the entire Mediterranean. Cornish tin led to the explorations of Pytheas and trading voyages of the Carthaginians. However, the main trade route led after crossing the channel by land through Gaul. The miners of Cornwall were among the most experienced in the world.
By the end of the 19th century Cornwall covered more than half the world's supply of tin. Also, copper was mined on a large scale here. In the 20th century the mines were largely exhausted mines in other countries could produce cheaper. Miners from Cornwall emigrated to America. Some of the tin mines were exhausted due to the increasing industrial demand for arsenic - often an accessory mineral of tin - changed in the early 20th century on arsenic extraction. Especially the slag heaps of tin production have been worked up. By arsenic dusts parts of the country were poisoned by the mines and to the desert. Only at the end of the 20th century began with a restoration of the country and some mines such as the Levant Mine or the Geevor mine in St Just Mining District were expanded to visitor attractions.
In the late 19th century, the first submarine reached the shores of Cornwall. Even today, the beaches of Porthcurno, Sennen and on the Lizard Peninsula are considered significant Anlandepunkte modern submarine. In addition to the submarine cables, satellite communications plays a major role in Cornwall. The Goonhilly Satellite Earth Station, the largest satellite system in the world, located in the southern part of the peninsula.
The favorable location for transatlantic links Cornish also made the radio pioneer Guglielmo Marconi advantage: On December 12, 1901 he succeeded his radio station in Poldhu on the Lizard Peninsula the first transatlantic radio transmission. The transmitted signals were received from here on Signal Hill in St. John's back to Newfoundland.
The Cornish, a Celtic language, died allegedly in 1777 with the death of the last primary spokesperson Dolly Pentreath of Mousehole as mother language. Cornish part of the southwest branch of the Britannic Isle Celtic and is closely related to the Welsh and Breton, to the Irish language and Scottish Gaelic which the differences are larger. Meanwhile, there are efforts to revive the language, and it was recognized by the British government as a minority language.
Today's English name is derived from the Anglo-Saxon Cornwall name core - weahlas, the " Cornish Welsh ( Italians ) ". The name Kernow (and thus also the English name element corn ) is derived from the root of the Britannic Cornovii.
Religiously and politically, the beads are considered to be non-conformists. So there is a dispute who should be national saint, St Piran, Archangel Michael or Saint Petroc. Saint Piran is considered popular, his character ( a white cross on a black background) adorns the flag of Cornwall. His name day, March 5, is celebrated from beads all over the world. Although his flag was chosen by the Cornish secessionists as an icon, she also adorns in non- political importance, the packaging of some Cornish pasties.
The administrative headquarters of Cornwall in Truro. Due to the administrative reform on 1 April 2009, all districts were abolished in Cornwall and combines the skills of the districts and the county in a single unitary authority. The Isles of Scilly were allowed to keep their status as a unitary authority. Prior to April 2009 Cornwall was divided into the six districts ( districts) Caradon, Carrick, Kerrier, North Cornwall, Penwith, and Restormel.
Towns, villages and other settlements
- Bejuans, Bodmin, Boscastle, Bosporthennis, Bosvennen, Boswednack, Botallack, Botreah, Bude,
- Callington, Calstock, Camborne, Camelford, Canon 's Town Carbis Bay, Carn Towan, Charlestown, Chenhalls, Chyandour, Chypraze, Connor Downs, Coverack, Crowlas, Crows-an -Wra
- Devoran, drift
- Falmouth, Fowey
- Gwinear, Gwithian
- Hayle, Heamoor, Helston
- Kelynack, Kerris
- Lamorna, Land's End, Launceston, Lelant, Liskeard, Lizard, Long Rock, Looe, Lostwithiel, Lower Ninnes, Ludgvan
- Madron, Marazion, Mevagissey, Morvah, Mousehole
- Newbridge, New Mill, Newlyn, Newquay
- Padstow, Paul, Penberth, Pendeen, Pennance, Penzance, Perranuthnoe, Phillack, Polperro, Polruan, Porthcurno, Porthgwarra, Porthleven Porthmeor, Port Isaac, Portreath
- Reawla, Redruth, Relubbus, Rosemergy, Rosewarne
- Saltash, Sancreed, Sennen, Sennen Cove, Sparnon, St Agnes, St Austell, St Buryan, St Erth, St Hilary, St Ives, St Just in Penwith, St Levan, St Mawes, St Michael 's Mount
- Tredinnick, Tregavarah, Treloweth, Trenuggo, Treveal, Trevellard, Trevescan, Truro, Tintagel, Torpoint, Towednack, Tregarnoe
Geology and landscape
- Bedruthan Steps
- Bodmin Moor
- Land's End
- Lizard Point, Cornwall, the most southerly point of Britain
Before - and early historical monuments
- Mên-an -Tol
Cities and architecture
- Cathedral of St. Mary in Truro
- Godolphin House
- Kynance Cove
- Lanhydrock House