Regions of Italy

Italy 's 20 regions ( regioni Italian, singular regione ) can be subdivided, of which five autonomous regions with special statute. The regions in turn are subdivided into provinces.

  • 4.1 Acting Regional President

Status, institutions and competences

Institutional structures

The regions each have their own directly elected people's representatives, the regional council ( consiglio regional ), which is comparable to the state legislatures of the German states. Its members are referred to as regional councils ( consiglieri regionali ). The legislature of the Region of Sicily is called the autonomous orientation according to Sicilian Regional Assembly ( Assemblea Regionale Siciliana, short ARS), its members are regional deputy ( deputati regionali ). The Regional Council is elected for five years and has the task, in the context of regional powers to legislate and monitor the regional government.

In the case of Trentino- South Tyrol, the Regional Council may exceptionally be selected. This is composed of the elected provincial councils of the autonomous provinces of Bolzano and Trento together (also called Diets of the autonomous orientation according to ).

The regional government is headed by the President of the Regional Committee ( presidente della giunta regional ), which can be directly elected by the people since 2000 ( unless the statute provides for the election by the Regional ago). He is also the President of the Region ( presidente della regione ) and is informally known as Governor ( the Governor ).

In Valle d'Aosta, the President is not appointed directly, but by the Regional Council of the electorate. In Trentino -Alto Adige also apply the principle of rotation: the President of the autonomous provinces, also called governors, alternate every two and a half years as the head of the region.

The President shall direct the Regional Committee ( giunta regional, approximately: Regional Government ), in which the regional minister designated as Assessori are represented, he may appoint and recall them at will. In addition, he has the task of proclaiming the laws approved by the Regional Council to convene the meetings of the Regional Government and to guide them, and to represent the region in all respects. If the trust removed from the directly elected president, he resigns or living from it, so new elections must be called.

Responsibility of the regional government as a whole is to carry out the regional laws to manage the matters of regional competence to give instructions to the subordinate regional authorities.

The statute

All regions have a statute, a regional constitution. On the basis of the Statute, the regions are divided into two or three categories.

Regions with normal statute

15 of the 20 Italian regions have a normal statute ( statuto Ordinary ). This was adopted by the Regional Council, in two successive rounds of voting, at a distance of not less than two months, and a referendum may be subjected. The statute, which must be consistent with the entire state, determines the form of government of the region as well as the basic principles of their organization and functioning. It regulates the exercise of the right of initiative and the right to petition for a referendum on laws and administrative acts of the region, as well as the publication of the laws and regulations in the region.

The financial autonomy of the regions with normal statute, which is provided for by article 119 of the entire state, was largely not been implemented to date. However, the regions have the IRAP, a value-added tax, which is comparable to the German trade tax, a share of the IVA (value added tax ) and on the regional surcharge rate of income tax ( addizionale regional IRPEF ), which, from 0.9 to 1 4%.

The regions with normal statute erected in the course of the 70s.

Autonomous regions with special statute

Five regions have a special statute ( statuto speciale ). This is adopted by a State Constitutional Act of Parliament in Rome.

The special status granted to a larger, especially financial autonomy than they other regions with normal statute ( statuto Ordinary ) possess: in Friuli, the region retains about 60 % of the driven into their territory taxes and administers the tax revenue itself, 70 % are in Sardinia, 90 % in Trentino -Alto Adige and the Aosta valley and even 100 % in Sicily. The one million inhabitants rich Trentino-Alto Adige, therefore, has a budget, which corresponds to the Veneto ( 4.8 million inhabitants). This is also the reason that many border communities wishing to join the larger autonomous regions.

The regions with a special statute have further legislative and administrative competences that must not be financed as in the other regions of the state, but by themselves.

Four of the five regions with special statute were built by the Constituent Assembly in 1948: Sicily and Sardinia due to the strong autonomy movements ( in Sicily was the separatism in the post-war period particularly pronounced ), the Aosta Valley to protect the French-Provencal minority, Trentino -Alto Adige, then Trentino- Alto Adige, to protect the German-speaking minority in accordance with the Paris Convention.

After the international status of Trieste was settled in 1963, the Friuli -Venezia Giulia has been established and also received a special statute to ensure the protection of the Slovene minority and to promote the economic development of the border area.

In 1972, after lengthy negotiations, the new Statute for Trentino -Alto Adige in force.

Autonomous provinces

The region Trentino-Alto Adige is in accordance with Article 116, paragraph 2 of the Italian Constitution of the autonomous provinces of Trento and Bolzano. These are equipped with powers similar to those of the autonomous regions. Many also speak of provinces with a special statute. According to the alignment of your autonomous Trentino and South Tyrol are also referred to as " countries", and their presidents bear the title " Governor ".

Regional powers


For all matters which are not expressly reserved by the Constitution of the state legislature, the regions is the legislative power to ( exclusive jurisdiction of the regions).

Other areas are part of the framework legislation ( in Italian but competenza concorrente ). The State establishes the main principles of a subject area by the framework law; each region or autonomous province is empowered to develop these principles by their own laws and to clarify and adapt to their own needs.

Through a comprehensive constitutional reform in 2001 was thus the Italian regions transmit the general legislative power. While the powers of the regions with normal statute limited to the Constitutional Act 3/2001 that are listed in the Constitution subjects and only insofar as could be exercised that a state law regulated the principles of the matter, it is now the state whose exclusive authority to legislate in a number of enumerated subjects is limited.

The legislative power is exercised by the Regional Council.

Regulation violence

The State with respect to the authority to adopt regulations in the fields of its exclusive legislative power. It can be obtained from the regions by law the authority to adopt regulations in his place in that area.

The regions shall have the authority to adopt regulations in the areas of framework legislation and exclusive regional legislation. The regulations shall be adopted by the Regional Committee, with the exception of the regions of Aosta Valley and Sardinia, where this authority is delegated to the Regional Council.

EU and international law powers

In the framework of its competence, the regions and the autonomous provinces of Trento and Bolzano are involved in the drafting of European legislation and ensure the implementation and enforcement of international treaties and EU measures.

Within their respective fields, the region may also enter into agreements with States and agreements with local authorities of other states.

However, a state law cases and forms must regulate these powers.


Control of the state to the regions

The national government may challenge regional laws within sixty days after its publication in the Constitutional Court if it considers that the responsibility of the regions have been exceeded. That, Article 127 of the Constitution.

The in almost all regions now defunct government commissioners even had the power to challenge a regional law before its release. Only in Bolzano and Trento continues to exist, the Government Commissioner, but without those serious power. The Government Commissioner shall exercise only the functions of a prefect, which means it is subject to the decentralized public administration.

The national government also has the right to challenge its constitutionality by bringing an action in the Constitutional Court within thirty days after the publication of the regional statutes. This only applies to regions with normal statute.

The regional institutions subject to state control. Firstly, there is a replacement control by the national government. In the case of non-compliance with international standards, treaties or European legislation; in the case of serious danger for public safety and security; if required by the protection of the legal and economic unity, in particular the protection of the basic level of benefits with respect to civil and social rights, the national government can enter instead of regional organs.

In Constitution or grave breaches of the laws even the resolution of the Regional Council and the impeachment of the President of the Regional Government can be initiated. Dissolution or removal can also be arranged for reasons of national security.

Controls the regions to the state ( and other regions )

The region may, if it deems that a law of a State or Region violated their competence, bring a constitutional challenge.

You may charge a jurisdiction proceedings before the Constitutional Court in administrative disputes.

Coordination between State and Regions

Since there is no Federal Council in the Italian constitutional system, there is cooperation between the state and the regions to more informal level. Here, the so-called State-Regions Conference has emerged that since the late 90s officially recognized as a collegial body. The Legislative Decree 281/1997 regulates the composition and functioning of the committee: chairman is the Prime Minister, Minister of the region as his deputy. At the conference, all presidents of the regions and autonomous provinces interact with ( the governors of South Tyrol and Trentino ). The institution is primarily made for coordination between the State and the Regions and the mutual exchange of information.

Territorial outline

With the exception of Aosta, the regions into provinces (province) are broken, of which there are 109. Counting the Aosta Valley region as a province, you get to 110

The lowest level of government below the provinces form the municipalities ( comuni ), of which there are 8,058. The reorganization of the municipalities is the responsibility of the Regions: After consultation with the populations concerned, they can form new communities, change or rename districts with their own legislation.

The so-called big cities with special status ( Città Metropolitan ) have not yet been established: they should form a sort of super- province, which holds all powers of a province and a part of the community skills.

Summary Table

  • NUTS: NUTS code
  • Prov: . Number of provinces, see Provinces Italian # list
  • Acc: Number of municipalities
  • Sen.: Number of Senators

Reform plans

By the end of the Berlusconi government III adopted in 2005 in the House of Representatives and the Senate by a majority of its constitutional law, the autonomy of all regions should be further developed. New legislative powers should be granted only to the regions, such as the education and health care and the administration police. Should be compensated for the strengthening of regional powers with the reintroduction of national interest as a limitation of the regional legislation. Moreover, the hitherto directly elected Italian Senate should be composed of representatives of the regions and be renamed the Federal Senate ( Senato Federale ). The entry into force of this reform package (called Devoluzione, see the English term devolution ) but was of a referendum ( plebiscite ) are satisfied, which took place on 25 and 26 June 2006 and was out in Veneto and Lombardy rejected by a large majority.

Current plans of the Cabinet Renzi provide parts of the former reform package now but implement, such as the transformation of the Italian Senate in a meeting of the representatives of the regions of Italy and the Italian communities, partly modeled on the German Bundesrat. In contrast, it is planned to curtail the powers of the regions and due to central government.

Under the Cabinet Berlusconi IV request of the Lega Nord 's financial autonomy (so-called federalismo fiscale ) of the Regions also should be implemented with normal constitutional statute. In fact, in particular occurred in this area during the Cabinet Monti a recentralization of public finances and even the regions with a special statute were imposed substantial savings, which were partly classified as unconstitutional.

Regional elections

The regions and autonomous provinces can decide on the law applicable voting system. The regional electoral laws are essentially based on state law 43/1995, after its author, also called tartar Ella - law, which was initially valid for all regions with normal statute and providing that 4/5 of the seats were awarded Regional accordance with the voting power of the parties. The Act also provided for a minimum threshold of 3%, however, accounted for if one party had formed a coalition under 3 % with a party that got more than 5% of the votes. The remaining fifth of the seats was awarded the winner coalition to guarantee governability. The corresponding ensure these principles regional election laws that regional governments are stable and the five -year term by normally hold.

Until the collapse of the political system in the context of Tangentopoli, most regions were ruled by the Italian Christian Democrats and the allied Italian Socialists, with the exception of Emilia -Romagna, Tuscany and Umbria, which were predominantly ruled by the Communists. Since then, the political landscape is at the regional level by the rival center-right (now led by the Forza Italia and the Northern League ) and center-left coalitions ( led by the Partito Democratico ) coined. After the regional elections of 1995, the first of the so-called Second Republic, nine regions of center-right and center-left coalitions were ruled out and two regions of autonomists, respectively. In 2000, Silvio Berlusconi's center-right coalition has asserted a clear winner ( in consequence resigned Prime Minister Massimo D' Alema, to form a new State government). After the elections of 2005, only four regions were governed by center-right coalitions: Lombardy, Veneto, Molise and Sicily. Due to this defeat, were lost in the six regions of the center-left, Prime Minister Berlusconi resigned and formed a new government.

In 2008, the center-right coalition won the election in Friuli Venezia Giulia and the Abruzzo region itself, in Sardinia it ruled from 2009 to 2014.

On 28 and 29 March 2010, re-elected in 13 of the 20 regions of which were initially governed by only two center-right coalitions. The Alliance of Popolo della Libertà (since 2013 Forza Italia ) and Lega Nord was to win four more regions, while the center- left coalition could hold seven regions.

In the early regional elections in Lombardy, Lazio and Molise on 24 and 25 February 2013, the center-right alliance former, center-left, the other regions could conquer.

Since the lost elections in the autonomous regions of Friuli- Venezia Giulia (2013 ) and Sardinia (2014) govern center-right coalitions in six regions. Twelve regions are governed by center-left. In the region of Trentino -Alto Adige is an alliance of South Tyrolean People's Party, the Partito Democratico Partito Autonomous Ista Trentino Tirolese, Unione per il Trentino Union and Autonomous Ista Ladina in power. In Valle d'Aosta, the autonomist parties Valdôtaine Union and Stella Alpina govern.

Acting regional presidents