Perugia [ pe'ru ː d͡ʒa, Italian Ausspr. ? / I] is the capital of the Umbria region of Italy and the province of Perugia. It has 162 986 inhabitants ( 31 December 2012).
Perugia was ( 493 m) was originally founded by the Etruscans on a prominent hill overlooking the plain, whose antique name is Perusia. She was one of the twelve most powerful Etruscan cities and the Twelve Cities and Towns. The ancient city Arna is an eastern district today.
In medieval and early modern Italian city could be described as Perugia, but also - in pronunciation and sound booth options - as Perogia, Perusa or Perosa. In the Middle Ages the city was a long time faithful allies of Rome against the Emperor. 1198 Perugia is also solved formally by the imperial authority by itself under the protection of Pope Innocent III. presented. It was dominated by Guelph merchants, who made them the only major Umbrian commercial center, similar to the Tuscan city-states. The highlight of this development was in the 13th century.
The Guelph orientation of the city but did not mean that there would have been no difficulties with the supposedly sheltered Papal States. In 1500, ie in the time of the first golden age of humanist historical research, calculated that historians such as Perugia Tuscan cities, as is apparent from the Chronicle of Matarazzo. Already in 1354, at the time of Cardinal Albornoz, Spoleto was finally incorporated into the Papal States, in 1439 followed Foligno, Orvieto in 1450, at the beginning of the 16th century, the other Umbrian towns are then gone the same way last Perugia 1540.
In the so-called " salt war" then the subject of Perugia in 1540 Pope Paul III. They had refused to accept a new tax on salt, and the pope acted drastically. Within a very short time - 1540 to 1543 - he had to keep the city under control finally, a fort on the Colle Landone by Antonio da Sangallo create that is named after its builder Rocca Paolina. More than three centuries remained Perugia subject to the Papal State. The spiritual life froze in academies.
Twice the power of the church was interrupted: 1798/99 after the invasion of French troops from 1809 to 1814 and after a decade of ecclesiastical restoration as part of the Napoleonic Empire. The uprisings of 1831, 1848 and 1859 ( massacre of Perugia) were defeated by the papal troops. On September 14, 1860 Piedmontese troops marched in Perugia. Umbria was the new Italian state incorporated
A few years ago those neighborhoods that had been buried after the Pope's victory were again exposed and form today on the mountainside a little eerie own city under the top, "official" city, are housed in the escalators, shops and the like, similar to as in underground installations.
Culture and sights
Palazzo dei Priori
Former medieval aqueduct
In addition to the rather uninteresting development areas in the plane of the old town lying on the mountain has many narrow streets with flair and numerous interesting monuments, including the Arco Etrusco, an arch structure from the 3rd century BC, the medieval Fontana Maggiore, the Perugini considered the most beautiful fountains in the world, and the Palazzo dei Priori with its exceptional external staircase, in whose rooms the National Gallery of Umbria is housed. Furthermore, the Tempio di San Michele Arcangelo are calling, a round church dating from the 5th - 6th Century, the churches of San Domenico from the 17th century and San Pietro from the period around 1600 and the underground area below the Rocca Paolina, the. Following the submission of Perugia by the Pope Paul III 1540 buried under the Rocca. The most famous son of the city is the painter Pietro Vannucci, called Perugino, in the Collegio del Cambio frescoes can be seen of him. In the center of the old town of Corso Vannucci, with its shops and cafes.
- Umbria Jazz Perugia is also the venue of the ' Umbria Jazz ', one of the largest and most famous jazz festivals. The ten-day festival takes place every year since 1973 in early July.
- Euro Chocolate: The Euro Chocolate, one of the most popular European events chocolate, takes place annually in October.
In the whole of Italy - and beyond - knows the Baci Perugina ( kisses from Perugia), chocolates with a filling of nougat and whole hazelnuts; the manufacturing company Perugina is based in Perugia, but for years is part of the Nestlé Group.
In Perugia is located next to the University of Perugia and the University for Foreigners of Perugia, at the foreign students from all over the world to study the Italian language and national culture come together. The lecture rooms are housed in the Palazzo Gallenga, the only Baroque buildings in the city.
Perugia has taken very rigid measures against car traffic. At certain times of the day you should not go into the city without special permission by car. This has a very positive impact on the possibilities of movement within the historic district. It is his car onto one of the large parking lots in the lower parts of the city and can take escalators through the Rocca Paolina up to the downtown.
Since 2008, a Mini Metro with seven stations exist.
Twelve kilometers east of the city is Perugia Airport.
- The football club AC Perugia Calcio currently plays in the fourth division Lega Pro Prima Divisione.
- The team Perugia Calcio a 5 in 2005 by Italian masters in futsal.
Twin cities of Perugia
- France Aix -en- Provence, France
- Slovakia Bratislava, Slovakia
- United States Grand Rapids (Michigan ), United States
- Germany Potsdam, Brandenburg, Germany
- United States Seattle, Washington State, USA
- Germany Tubingen, Baden- Wurttemberg, Germany
Famous people of the city are included in the list of personalities of the city of Perugia.