Tucson [ tu ː sɑn ] is a city in the U.S. state of Arizona. The city is the county seat ( county seat ) of Pima County. Its population is 520,116 ( 2010 census ); in the metropolitan Tucson 1.0202 million inhabitants live. Tucson is the largest city in southern Arizona and the second largest in Phoenix Arizona.
The name Tucson derives from the language of the Tohono O'Odham - Indians. Your name of the area, Chuk Shon, means " at the foot of the black mountain " (based on the Sentinel Peak near Downtown Tucson ).
Tucson was inhabited by 12,000 BC by Paläoindianer. Near the present town center are the ruins of a village were found about 1,000 BC was here. Between 1200 BC and 150 AD, the area was used for agriculture to Tucson. The city is among the longest continuously inhabited places in the United States. The former inhabitants built irrigation canals to farm the corn and bean fields. Between 600 and 1450 AD, settled the Hohokam culture in the area. The Mission San Xavier del Bac was established near present-day Tucson in 1699 by the Italian Jesuit missionary Father Eusebio Francisco Kino. The city was finally founded on August 20, 1775 with the construction of the Presidio ( fort ) under the leadership of Hugo O'Conor by the Spaniards. After Mexico's independence from Spain in 1821 Tucson belonged to Mexico. With the Gadsden Purchase in 1853, the city fell to the United States. From 1867 to 1877 Tucson was the capital of Arizona Territory. 1885 here was founded the University of Arizona. After the Second World War, settled here many former soldiers and with the advent of air conditioning attracted more and more people to Tucson. The population grew from 8,000 residents in 1880 to 120,000 (1950) and 220,000 ( 1960).
¹ 1980-2010: census results;
The city is located in a plateau surrounded by five up to 2,880 m high mountain ranges, the Santa Catalina Mountains and Tortolita Mountains to the north, the Santa Rita Mountains to the south, the Rincon Mountains to the east, and the Tucson Mountains to the west. The city lies on the Santa Cruz River, which has dried up on rainy weeks during the summer monsoon.
The closest major cities are Phoenix (Arizona ) to the north, El Paso (Texas ) to the east, the sister cities of Nogales (Arizona ) and Nogales ( Sonora ) in the south, and San Diego ( California ) to the west.
The major employers in the city are adjacent to the University of Arizona, the county and city government, the electronics industry, defense and aerospace industries as well as service and tourism sector.
One of the largest private employers in Tucson include Raytheon Missile Systems, Texas Instruments, IBM, Intuit Inc., America Online, Universal Avionics, Misys Healthcare Systems and Bombardier. Since July 6, 2007, there is also a branch of the " Solon America Corporation ". The company's goal is the transformation of the State of Arizona the " Solar Valley " in the United States.
The 3.5 million tourists annually bring revenue of about 2.2 billion U.S. dollars.
Other important economic factors are the University of Arizona and the military airfield of the U.S. Air Force.
The unemployment rate was 8.6% in June 2010 after she was still at 3.7 % in 2007. 2007, the average per capita income stood at 26,732 U.S. dollars.
Tucson is connected by motorway I-10 to the east by New Mexico and El Paso (Texas ) and to the west by Phoenix and Los Angeles and San Diego ( I-8). Leading towards the south Interstate 19 to Nogales ( Arizona / Mexico ) and Hermosillo ( Sonora, Mexico).
The city has an international airport, the Tucson International Airport, which is used annually by more than 4 million passengers (2008).
There is also a train station, departs attended by about 3 times a week an Amtrak train (Sunset Limited) towards Orlando and Los Angeles.
In Tucson, there is a historical tram, the Old Pueblo Trolley, which connects on weekends the campus of the University of Arizona with the bar district 4th Avenue. In May 2006, the population of Tucson approved the proposal of the city government to build a modern tram network. The tram will run from downtown on 4th Avenue and the University to the University Hospital, and record towards the end of 2013 the operation.
The company operates Suntran a relatively dense bus network.
Tucson is home to the University of Arizona, the oldest and second largest university in Arizona. The university was founded in 1885 and today has approximately 37,000 students.
There is also the Pima Community College with 75,000 students, which offers two -year degree programs.
In Tucson, the Arizona Opera Company, the Tucson Symphony Orchestra, the Southern Arizona Symphony Orchestra, the Tucson Boys Chorus, Tucson Girls Chorus of, and the Civic Orchestra of Tucson are located.
Among the most important museums in the city include the Arizona Historical Society, the Tucson Museum of Art with 6,000 exhibits, among others from the pre - Hispanic period, the University of Arizona Art Museum, with works by, inter alia, Franz Kline, Jackson Pollock and Mark Rothko the Center of Photography and Create the Museum of Contemporary Art
Outside the town is the Arizona -Sonora Desert Museum, the Pima Air Museum and the Titan Missile Museum.
The student nightlife is mainly in the bars on University Boulevard instead, directly at the main entrance to the campus. Here live music is often played. The pub mile from Tucson 's 4th Avenue, which can be reached from the University of the historic tram on weekends. Following the 4th Avenue towards the city center to get to the Congress Street, where there are more pubs and clubs (such as the Club Congress). Finer pubs / clubs are found primarily in the Foothills eg in the La Encantada Shopping Mall.
There are many cinemas in the city, which usually show blockbuster movies. The Loft Cinema on the Speedway a few kilometers east of the university is dedicated to alternative and international films. Every April, hosts an international film festival.
Information on upcoming events can be found in the free " Tucson Weekly", which can pick up in most bars and restaurants.
- The Arizona -Sonora Desert Museum in the north- west of the city is a zoo and botanical garden. It houses almost all plants and animals found in the Sonoran Desert.
- Affiliated to the Davis - Monthan Air Force Base is the 309th Aerospace Maintenance and Regeneration Group ( AMARG ), in the region around 4,200 military aircraft of all kinds are mothballed or be utilized by generation of spare parts.
- In the north- east of the city in Oro Valley, the publicly accessible biosphere is 2
- The player designated as arboretum campus of the University of Arizona with its many rare trees and plants, as well as various museums and venues.
- The Mission San Xavier del Bac, an old Spanish mission church from the 17th century ( about 16 km south of the city).
- The famous Old Tucson Studios in northwest Tucson have long been the setting for many western movies and television series; Today they serve as a tourist attraction with daily shows and events.
- The Pima Air Museum with a variety of historical military aircraft (among Lockheed SR -71 " Blackbird" ). From there, the AMARC can be visited.
- Northwest and east of the town is the Saguaro National Park with its giant cacti ( Carnegiea gigantea ).
- South of Tucson is the Titan Missile Museum.
- Colonia Solana
- El Encanto
- El Rio
- Emery Park
- Sam Hughes
- Greece Trikala, Greece
- Iraq Sulaymaniyah, Iraq
- Ireland County Roscommon, Ireland
- Kazakhstan Almaty, Kazakhstan
- Mexico Ciudad Obregon, Mexico
- Mexico Guadalajara, Mexico
- Spain Segovia, Spain
- Hungary Pécs, Hungary
- Italy Fiesole, Italy
Sons and daughters of the town
- Chris - Pin Martin (1893-1953), actor
- Robert McBride (1911-2007), composer
- Lalo Guerrero (1916-2005), singer, guitarist and songwriter
- Zenna Henderson (1917-1983), an elementary school teacher
- Ulysses Kay (1917-1995), composer
- Bill Cheesbourg (1927-1995), racing driver
- Barbara Eden ( born 1934 ), actress
- Dennis DeConcini (* 1937), politician
- Linda Ronstadt ( born 1946 ), singer
- Raúl Grijalva (* 1948), politician
- Tom Udall ( b. 1948 ), politician
- Thad W. Allen ( b. 1949 ), Admiral
- Mark Udall ( b. 1950 ), politician
- Rico Saccani ( b. 1952 ), conductor
- W. Hugh Woodin ( b. 1955 ), mathematician
- Raymond Pettibon ( b. 1957 ), artist
- Douglas J. Cuomo (born 1958 ), composer
- Brad Johnson ( born 1959 ), actor
- Chris Cacavas ( born 1961 ), singer and songwriter
- Jim Grabb (born 1964 ), tennis player
- Tony Malaby (born 1964 ), musician
- Sean Elliott ( born 1968 ), basketball player
- Gabrielle Giffords (born 1970 ), politician
- Sharon Leal (born 1972 ), actress
- Taryn Manning (born 1978 ), singer and actress
- Lacey Nymeyer (* 1985), swimmer
- Kaylee DeFer ( born 1986 ), actress
- Mika Boorem (* 1987), actress
- Martin Spanjers (* 1987), actor
- Dominic Janes (* 1994), actor
Famous residents of the city
- Rich Hopkins, guitarist and songwriter
- Otto Krayer, significant pharmacologist
- Paul McCartney, musician and singer, member of The Beatles
- Lute Olson, a successful basketball manager
- Howe Gelb, musicians with ancestors from Austria; mastermind of Giant Sand
- Gordon Tullock, economist