Phoenix [fi ː nɪks ] is the capital and the largest city of the U.S. state of Arizona, as well as the sixth largest city in the United States.
Phoenix is since February 5, 1881 and the county seat ( county seat ) of Maricopa County.
Phoenix is located in the heart of Arizona in the Valley of the Sun ( " Valley of the Sun ") in the Sonoran Desert.
The extended urban area has 4 million inhabitants. It includes Mesa, Scottsdale, Glendale, Tempe, Chandler, Gilbert, Peoria and many smaller places like Goodyear, Avondale, Litchfield Park, Anthem, and predominantly inhabited by pensioners communities ( retirement communities ) such as Sun City, Sun City West and Fountain Hills.
The Salt River flows from the north-east of the Maricopa County through the south of Phoenix. The border to Tempe ( Arizona) is formed from La Toma Crosscut Canal.
The Phoenix metropolitan area is further limited by the McDowell Mountains to the north, South Mountain Park and Estrella Mountains to the south, the White Tanks in the west and the Superstition Mountains to the east.
In Phoenix, there are an average of 312 days of sunshine a year. One third of the year ( from mid-May to mid-September ), the temperatures above 38 ° C (100 ° F). The temperature may rise even to 46 ° C. On the hottest days of the year. The dry desert air in Arizona makes the high temperatures, however, a little more bearable ( " dry heat "). The population is the heat only to a small extent from - most of the buildings and vehicles are air-conditioned.
The lowest winter temperatures range from 0 ° C (32 ° F), but seldom remain for a long time so low. Measurable amounts of snow there was in recent years twice: 1 cm in 1990 and 2.5 cm in 1985, the annual average fall in the area around 194 mm of rain.. The few rain falls over the period of the southwest monsoon from July to mid September, when occasionally warm, moist air from the Gulf of California displaces the hot desert air.
The most important university in the Greater Phoenix is located in Tempe Arizona State University, according to student numbers, the second largest university in the United States. In August 2006, the ASU opened a campus in downtown Phoenix.
The medical faculty of based in Tucson University of Arizona has a field office in Phoenix, which was until 2007 substantially expanded. Students can now occupy most medical classes on the new campus in the city center. Also offers the business faculty of the University of Arizona, the Eller College of Management an Executive MBA in Phoenix.
In addition to the offices of the two major state universities in Arizona has in the city of Phoenix in the USA the largest private university, the University of Phoenix is relocating
In the city Glendale is the business school Thunderbird - The Garvin School of International Management. The school was created in 1946 from the military airfield " Thunderbird Fields".
In the greater Phoenix area, there are 10 community colleges.
Historically Phoenix is a rather by agriculture (cotton and citrus fruits) influenced city, but have here in the last two decades, particularly electronics and telecommunications companies invested. Because of the attractive climate, its proximity to the Grand Canyon and other scenic attractions, tourism has developed into another pillar of the urban economy. In winter, Phoenix is popular with golfers who want to escape the bad weather in the northern United States. As one of the fastest growing cities in the United States, Phoenix is currently of particular interest to the real estate industry.
In Greater Phoenix 5 Fortune 500 companies have their headquarters: Apollo Group, Avnet, Phelps Dodge, U.S. Airways and Allied Waste Industries. Other large companies that have their headquarters in Phoenix, among other Best Western, Cold Stone Creamery, Mesa Airlines, PF Chang 's China Bistro and Shamrock Foods. Also, the thin-film module expert " First Solar " here has its headquarters, but operates its production lines in Perrysburg / Ohio and Frankfurt ( Oder).
Other large employers in the region include Bank of America, General Dynamics, Henkel, Honeywell, Intel, Motorola or Southwest Airlines.
The city is located on Interstate I-10 with Los Angeles in the West and Tucson (or Mexico and Texas) connected to the southeast. The I-17 leads to northern Arizona to Flagstaff. The I-8 leads to the south of the city on Yuma to San Diego in California.
The Phoenix metropolitan area is a very good transport opened up with a ring motorway and various city highways. However, it very often leads to traffic jams, therefore, was on December 27, 2008, a tram with 32 km (20 mi ) in length opens (start of construction for this was in March 2005), the Valley Metro Rail, which with the Phoenix Airport, Arizona State University and Tempe and Mesa connects. From the tram is hoped that a revitalization of the city center.
In the Phoenix metropolitan area, there are five airports, the Sky Harbor International Airport, one of the busiest airports in the world, the Williams Gateway Airport ( from the closed 1993 Williams Air Force Base originated ), the Falcon Field Airport, the Phoenix - Goodyear Municipal Airport and Scottsdale Municipal Airport in Scottsdale - the last two are served mostly by private jets.
Phoenix is the largest city in the United States, which has no connection to the Amtrak long-distance network. The operation by Amtrak was discontinued in 1996 and finally moved to Maricopa.
Phoenix is one of the (currently 12) cities that are represented in each of the four major sports ( baseball, football, basketball, and hockey ) with a team in the league representing the highest; these are:
Other well-known teams are:
- Alice Cooper'stown, the bar of Alice Cooper
- Arizona Biltmore
- Arizona Historical Society Museum
- Arizona Science Center
- Arizona Veterans Memorial Coliseum / Arizona State Fairgrounds
- Camelback Mountain
- Chase Field
- Desert Botanical Garden, Phoenix Zoo, and Hole- in-the- Rock in the Papago Park
- Encanto Park
- Fleischer Museum
- Hall of Flame
- Heard Museum
- Hotel San Carlos
- Jobing.com Arena
- Metrocenter Mall
- Musical Instrument Museum
- Phoenix Art Museum
- Phoenix Museum of History
- Pueblo Grande Museum and Cultural Park
- St. Mary's Basilica
- South Mountain Park
- Squaw Peak Recreation Area
- Symphony Hall in Phoenix Civic Plaza
- Taliesin West and Gammage Auditorium, both of Frank Lloyd Wright designed
- Tovrea Castle
- U.S. Airways Center
- Wrigley Mansion
Sons and daughters of the town
- Nate Adams, motocross riders
- Bobby Ball, race car driver
- Jerryd Bayless, basketball players in the NBA
- Rich Beem, professional golfer on the PGA Tour
- Chester Bennington, lead singer of the band Linkin Park
- Dierks Bentley, country musician
- Mandy Bruno, actress
- Jimmy Bryan, racing driver
- Michael Carbajal, light flyweight boxer
- Gabrielle Carteris, Actress
- Emmett W. Chappelle, scholars of medicine, biology and nutrition sciences
- Allan Chase, jazz saxophonist
- Eddie Cheever, race car driver
- Matt Dallas, Actor
- Amy Davidson, Actress
- Allison DuBois, Medium
- Nancy Farmer, writer
- George Follmer, automobile racing driver
- Andy Gätjen, actor
- Steven Gätjen, German television presenter
- Barry Goldwater, politician and co-founder of the modern conservative movement in the United States
- Pat Hennen, motorcycle racer
- Marcos Hernandez, singer
- Charles Hickcox, swimmer and Olympic champion
- Gregg Hoffman, Film Producer
- Chalmers Johnson, advisor to the CIA and Asia expert
- Klete Keller, freestyle swimmer and Olympic champion
- Garrett List, trombonist and composer
- Billy Mayfair, professional golfer
- Michael McCollum, science fiction author and aerospace engineer
- Randall McDaniel, former American football player
- Michael McDowell, racers
- Alex Meraz, Actor
- Casey McKee, artist
- Stephenie Meyer, writer
- Mark Miller, Enduro athletes and marathon rally driver
- Harry Mitchell, Member of the House of Representatives of the United States
- Michele Mitchell, water jumper and Olympic gold medalist
- Jenny Mollen, actress
- Lewis Nash, jazz drummer
- Stevie Nicks, singer
- Mary Peters ( politician ), former Secretary of the Department of Transportation of the United States
- Charles Owens, a jazz musician
- Sidney Preston Osborn, 1941-1948 Governor of the State of Arizona
- Elena Reid, a professional boxer
- Buddy Rice, race car driver
- Charles S. Robb, 1982-1986 Governor of Virginia and later Senator
- Ashley Roberts, singer
- Howard Roberts, jazz guitarist of modern jazz, studio musician and guitar teacher
- Jennifer Rubin, Actress
- Nate Ruess, singer, songwriter
- Angelica Sanchez, jazz pianist
- John Shadegg, Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
- Robert Simonds, film producer
- Steven Lee Smith, Astronaut
- Chelsea Staub, Actress
- Bob Stump, Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
- Bernard Thompson, Basketball Player
- Melody Thornton, singer
- Amber Valletta, model and actress
- Lissa Wales, Photographer
- Jeannette Walls, journalist
- William Wasson, a Catholic priest and founder of the Children's Fund NPH
- Wayne Weiler, race car driver
- Vince Welnick, keyboardist
- Stanley N. Williams, volcanologist
- Mare Winningham, actress
- Darren Woodson, American football player
Bands from Phoenix
- Flotsam and Jetsam
- Canada - Calgary (Alberta, Canada)
- Italy - Catania ( Italy)
- People's Republic of China - Chengdu ( China)
- Ireland - Ennis (Ireland )
- France - Grenoble (Rhône -Alpes, France)
- Mexico - Hermosillo ( Sonora, Mexico)
- Japan - Himeji (Japan)
- Czech Republic - Prague (Czech Republic)
- Israel - Ramat Gan (Israel )
- China Republic - Taipei (Taiwan)
In the 1970s there was an unofficial twinning with the German city of Karlsruhe. The relations between the two cities even go back to the 19th century: In honor of the American city founded in 1894 was called the Phoenix Sports Club Karlsruhe; the football department was a founding member of the Football Association, the club which in the Karlsruher SC, German champion in 1909, later became. An official twinning, however, never materialized.