The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is a US-based IT and consulting firm headquartered in Armonk at North Castle in the U.S. state of New York.

IBM is one of the world's leading companies for hardware, software and services in the IT sector and one of the largest consulting companies. In terms of sales, the company is the world's second largest software company. IBM currently has 426 751 employees worldwide, in Germany estimated the American Chamber of Commerce in Germany ( AmCham ), the number of 2009 to 21,100.

  • 4.1 Operating Systems
  • 4.2 computer processors
  • 4.3 mainframes
  • 4.4 Unix Workstation and Server
  • 4.5 Personal Computer
  • 4.6 input and output devices
  • 4.7 services


IBM goes back to Herman Hollerith founded on December 3, 1896 predecessor companies Tabulating Machine Company. This company then put those developed by Herman Hollerith machines for counting and recording via punch cards that you have entered here. This also machines for counting the ballots in elections in the United States included. The production of such machines, IBM introduced a but after the producers for not counted by their machine votes were held liable.

On 16 June 1911, the company " International Time Recording Company " and " Computing Scale Corporation " were under the name " Computing Tabulating and Recording Company " (CTR ) Incorporated in Endicott, NY, USA, merged with the " Tabulating Machine Company ". The new company, which employs 1,300 staff, specialized in punch cards, commercial scales and clocks.

Thomas J. Watson in 1914 became head of the Computing - Tabulating - Recording Company, one of the companies from which IBM emerged, and led IBM until 1955. He coined a special corporate culture with a strong focus on sales. Great emphasis was placed on unconditional loyalty.

In 1924 it was renamed the company in " International Business Machines Corporation ," IBM briefly, since a large part of the product range now consisted of machines for use in companies, such as punch, auditors, punch card sorter, mixers and various tabulating machines. These were not sold in the rule, but let. IBM had a monopoly position worldwide in the field of standardized punch cards and their evaluation. In Germany, IBM was represented until 1949 by the profitable subsidiary DEHOMAG.

In 1943, Watson reported to have said the following memorable sentence: ". I think there is a world market for maybe five computers " ( ". I think there is a world market for maybe five computers " ) The author Kevin Maney has tried to to investigate the origin of this quote, but could find neither in the speeches of Watson's still in other documents an indication. Even during the Nazi period, the company supplied the billions of punch cards to its German subsidiary DEHOMAG, which were used, among other things, to organize more efficiently on behalf of the Nazi regime, the detection of the Jewish people and the Holocaust.

In the 1950s and early 1960s, the first computer and associated peripherals in the form of magnetic disk and drum memory, such as the IBM 305 RAMAC and tape drives and printers were developed with the models 701 and 1401. In June 1960, with the 7070 series of the first transistor-based programmable computer company IBM.

In the year 1964/65 came a new mainframe generation, S/360, to the market. The underlying architecture has been further developed in the evolutionary models S/370, S/390, System z and System z9 today. In parallel, the operating system OS/360 on OS/VS1, MVS/370, MVS / XA, MVS / ESA and OS/390 z to the current / OS has been developed.

Were for medium to large computer models / there is the DOS for S/360, which was developed from S/370 via DOS / VS, DOS / VSE to z / VSE.

The System / 3 was introduced in 1969 as a low-end computer and distributed to 1985. What was new here at one-third the size of conventional shadow maps the smaller hole card format, but which could save 96 instead of 80 bytes more data.

In 1975 came the first " portable " computer, the IBM 5100, with 25 kg weight, 16 Kbytes of RAM, BASIC, 16 × 64- character display and tape storage, to market. The computer had also because of its high price of over $ 9000 without success.

In response to the very successful Apple II, IBM introduced in 1981, then the first IBM - PC on the market. The computer was assembled from the market freely available standard components. The high price of PCs (converted nearly 5000 € ) quickly called competitors with cheaper deals on the market. In the 1990s, IBM has lost its leadership to its competitors.

Out of work at the IBM Research Laboratory in Zurich two Nobel Prizes in physics emerged. The winners were 1986 Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer for the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope in 1987 Johannes Georg Bednorz and Karl Alexander Müller and for the discovery of high temperature superconductivity. With Leo Esaki temporarily worked, another Nobel Prize winner for IBM Research.

1990 IBM employed 373,820 employees worldwide.

Since the late 1990s, IBM supports open source projects. So Linux is used on IBM servers, for example. These efforts were, however, not always straightforward: in 2003, the SCO Group sued IBM for alleged copyright infringement in the program code that IBM contributed to Linux. An open source project that IBM has started, is the development environment Eclipse. IBM Lotus Symphony is since 2008 a free office suite available, which is based on the program.

In response to changing customer needs, in particular for large-scale computers, the company was transformed significantly since the 1990s: the share of consulting and services has been greatly increased, together organizationally and most recently through the acquisition of PwC Consulting with approximately 30,000 employees worldwide in October 2002, content and staff continue expanded. With the acquisition of PwC Consulting consulting all areas in the IBM were merged organizationally. This business unit is now called IBM Global Business Services. IBM sees itself as a globally integrated business and technology partners. In addition to hardware and software solutions a wide range of consulting and implementation services as well as financing is offered.

From 1992 to 2004 notebooks were sold by IBM, the ThinkPad computer.

In February 2001, the American author Edwin Black published the book IBM and the Holocaust. In this he throws IBM claims to have worked through its subsidiary DEHOMAG 1933-1945 with the National Socialist regime, which supplies with the Hollerith machines and punch card technology, the Holocaust was logistically possible. Prior to IBM Germany GmbH was already a party to the compensation fund for Nazi forced laborers. Complaints of GIRCA, the Gypsy International Recognition and Compensation Action against IBM are of Swiss courts for lack of jurisdiction - Geneva was in the years 1933-1945 not seat the IBM have been - and was dismissed limitation.

From March 2002 to December 2011 was Samuel J. Palmisano CEO of IBM. Sam Palmisano was the successor of Louis Gerstner Jr., who was CEO from 1993 to 2002. With Louis Gerstner Jr., the post of CEO for the first time not occupied by its own employees.

In December 2004, IBM decided to exit the business with PCs and sold the PC division, thus the ThinkPads May 1, 2005 for 1.75 billion U.S. dollars to the Chinese computer manufacturer Lenovo. IBM commented in a press release strategy of selling the importance of the PC business to Lenovo: IBM plans to concentrate in the future, especially on more mobile devices. The PC era tend to a close, the company's focus thus moved to the area of mobile web services. Before that, the hard disk drive business already was sold to Hitachi.

In 2006, IBM achieved with 355 766 employees worldwide in 170 countries and a turnover of 91.4 billion U.S. dollars and a net profit of 9.4 billion U.S. dollars.

January 20, 2009 IBM announced a profit of 4.4 billion U.S. dollars in the fourth quarter of 2008. For the full year 2008, the profit was 12.3 billion U.S. dollars, exceeding the previous year by 18 percent.

According to a report in the Wall Street Journal in March 2009, IBM, Sun Microsystems was planning to take over for 6.5 billion U.S. dollars. The deal fell through, Sun was bought by Oracle instead.

2010 IBM was the eighteenth year in a row the company worldwide with the most patent applications, and able to increase its own record with 5896 patents again. At the turn of 2011/12 took over with Virginia Rometty first female lead of IBM.


With consultants in over 170 countries, IBM Global Business Services, GBS, the largest consulting company in the world. It forms a region within the IBM Global Services (see below). Around 80,000 consultants support companies from nearly 20 industries including SMEs. The topics discussed range from strategy consulting to supply chain management, financial management, customer relationship management to human resource management and application management. The services and consulting business accounts with $ 48.3 billion (2006) accounts for half of total sales of IBM.

The IBM STG is responsible for the development and distribution of IT infrastructure solutions with IBM System servers, System Storage and POS systems.

Product Overview:

  • System i is often used as an integrated computer system in the SME sector. It is the successor to the AS/400, which is also known by its later name of iSeries.
  • System p is the unix based system for high computational requirements and high reliability. The System i and System p are the Power Systems family, which was created from the merger of pSeries and iSeries in May 2008.
  • System x are Intel / AMD-based systems of IBM. In this class includes the BladeCenter family of IBM blade server systems, in contrast to other 19 -inch systems of the System x. Power and Cell processor - based blades available that can be managed together in Einschub-/Chassissystemen - Meanwhile, Intel, AMD, are.
  • System z mainframe systems. They are the successor to the S/360, S/370, S/390 and zSeries systems.
  • Pure Systems is one of the AS/400 not entirely dissimilar, pre-configured solution of combined hardware and software. It provides data center building blocks for private cloud computing.

All systems are in addition to the respective hardware optimized operating systems still different Linux distributions.

The IBM System Storage solutions include, inter alia, the disk subsystems DS300/DS400 ( low-end, old models ), as well as N3/6/7000 ( low-end/mid-range/high-end NAS) and DS3000 entry disk storage, DS5000 ( midrange, successor to the DS4000 series ), Storwize V7000, DS6000 (discontinued), DS8000 and XIV (both high-end ) and the band systems 3590, TS1120 or VTS, and SAN infrastructure and virtualization components (SAN Volume Controller, SVC), in addition, also Deduplikationslösungen around Diligent ( ProtecTIER ) and more software and service components.

Retail Store Solutions include point-of -sale and kiosk systems and the associated peripherals.

The IBM Software Group is divided since 2010 into two areas: Middleware and Solutions.

For Middleware Group includes the brands

  • Information Management ( DB2, Informix, and IMS)
  • Rational
  • Tivoli
  • WebSphere

And Solutions Group

  • Collaboration Solutions ( Lotus brand has, inter alia, the earlier recorded)
  • Business Analytics including Cognos and SPSS
  • Industry Solutions (Enterprise Content Management, Enterprise Marketing Management and B2B & Commerce )

With operations in over 40 countries Global Finance provides the world's largest IT financier constitutes one of the fields of activity is the lending of software, hardware and services of the Group.

With an annual turnover of 47.357 billion U.S. dollars ( 2005), Global Technology Services has established itself in recent years as an important part of the company, refer to the additional far more than half of the employees their field of activity. In addition to the consulting branch found mainly in this area, the number of service offers their home. An example of performance possible represents the area of ​​Strategic Outsourcing, which offers partial or complete takeover of IT departments.

Fields of activity of Global Services are:

  • E - Business Hosting Services
  • Integrated Technology Services
  • IT Strategic Outsourcing
  • Technical Support and Maintenance Services
  • IT Management Consulting
  • Business Consulting (see IBM Global Business Services)


IBM Germany

With the DEHOMAG IBM was represented in Germany since 30 November 1910. In 1949 it was renamed the " International Office Machines mbH ", later officially "IBM Germany GmbH". The headquarters was located until 1972 in Sindelfingen, 2009 in Stuttgart -Vaihingen. On 12 November 2009 the new headquarters in Ehningen was officially inaugurated. Employs approximately 3,000 people to 12,000 m². The IBM campus in Ehningen also summarizes other areas of IBM Germany GmbH and is also the location of the main data center. Other locations in the Greater Stuttgart Böblingen are with the Research and Development Centre ( since 1953 ) and Mr. Berg with the training center.

In 2003, approximately 800 employees of Deutsche Bank - which corresponded to a large part of their IT team - acquired by IBM and IBM Business Services GmbH, established in all outsourcing efforts of IBM were summarized. These include the former DVO daughters and IBB. The DVO in Oberhausen was disbanded in 2003 and laid off employees.

One of the first outsourcing projects for IBM in Germany was the acquisition of the IT department of FAG ball fishermen. The resulting branch in Schweinfurt was closed by IBM in 2005, laid off employees and moved the work abroad. The way the site closure has unsettled many IBM employees. The same is true for the acquired by Continental AG employees in Hanover, Salzgitter and Aachen, which were temporarily employed in the joint venture " ICA " and " ICG ".

After the restructuring, 2005, approximately 22,000 people were employed in Germany in 2006, before it had still been about 25,000. IBM has 40 locations in Germany.

In July 2008, the introduction of a new structure and process organization took place. As part of this reorganization, the German IBM was partitioned into four core areas of expertise along the value chain and this in turn divided into new highly specialized and globally integrated companies. Almost all hitherto existing subsidiaries and brands have been merged into the new companies. This measure was, inter alia connected with operation transitions for approximately 8,000 employees. Opened in 2013 in Magdeburg, Germany's first IT service center with around 300 employees. In addition to software consulting and development, it should also be part of the worldwide network of 32 IBM centers.

The management continued until May 2011 from the Chairman Martin Jetter, Reinhard Reschke of Finance, Dieter Scholz for staff, Michael Diemer for Global Technology Services, Gregor pills for the Global Business Services and Martina Koederitz for the middle market and partner business together. On May 4, 2011, Martina Koederitz successor of Jetter in the position of CEO. The Chairman of the Supervisory Board performs Martin Jetter.

Group structure IBM Germany

  • Research & Development IBM Germany Research & Development GmbH, Böblingen
  • IBM Network Development Germany GmbH, Berlin
  • IBM Germany, Ehningen
  • IBM Germany Kredit Bank GmbH, Ehningen
  • IBM Germany Enterprise Business Solutions GmbH, Ehningen
  • IBM Enterprise Application Solutions Germany GmbH, Ehningen
  • IBM Germany Financial Industry Solutions GmbH, Munich
  • IBM Germany Infrastructure Technology Services GmbH, Ehningen
  • IBM Business Services Germany GmbH, Ehningen
  • IBM Customer Support Services Germany, Berlin
  • IBM Mittelstand Services GmbH Germany, Meerbusch
  • IBM Germany Output Services GmbH, Stuttgart
  • IBM Germany Business Transformation Services GmbH, Ehningen
  • IBM Service Center Germany, Magdeburg
  • MDTVision GmbH, Munich
  • BWI Systeme GmbH, part BWI Center for Information Technology, Mecke (Rheinland ). See also: Hercules
  • IBM Germany Management & Business Support GmbH, Ehningen
  • IBM Germany Provident Fund
  • IBM Germany Pension Fund

IBM Slovakia

The headquarters of IBM Slovakia is located in Tower 115 in Bratislava.

IBM Austria

The headquarters of IBM Austria is located in Vienna. Offices exist in almost every state. Tatjana Oppitz is since January 5, 2011 Chairman of the Board.

IBM Switzerland

The IBM Switzerland headquarters are located in Zurich. In Switzerland, approximately 3,300 employees. The IBM Switzerland AG was founded in 1927 as the International Business Machines Company Ltd. In 1937 the name was changed to Watson Business Machines Inc., 1943 IBM Extension Suisse. In 1970 the definitive naming IBM Switzerland.


IBM has developed over the company history products for various areas of data processing, manufactured and sold. The first products of the company go back to punch cards devices have already been used in the 1880s for the census in the United States.

Operating Systems

IBM began to develop with Microsoft OS / 2 as a desktop operating system for IBM - compatible PCs. When Microsoft got out of this business in order to concentrate fully on Windows as an operating system for IBM - compatible computers, IBM developed the operating system on its own. Despite technical superiority to OS / 2 could not prevail with the customer, which led to the discontinuation of further development towards MS Windows. Primarily in banks, but also in insurance, airlines and in the manufacturing industry OS / 2 is even today still be found.

In mainframes IBM operating systems dominate (z / OS) market. A regional exception is Germany, where the BS2000/OSD operating system is often used by Fujitsu.

IBM announced in February 1999 for the first time officially to support Linux as an operating system platform, and soon belonged to his biggest supporters. 2000, the Group invested approximately one billion U.S. dollars in the development of this free operating system. Among other things, an opportunity was created to run Linux on z / Series computers; either directly or as a guest system under the operating system z / VM. This will be possible for server consolidation on the mainframe. Most Linux distributions are also available for z / Series today.

On the Power processor-based workstations and enterprise servers such as RS/6000 or pSeries IBM AIX is running, a system developed by IBM Unix derivative. IBM provides for AIX a choice, usually known by Linux, free software available. There are on the web pages of the so-called IBM AIX Toolbox. Even a pure 64 -bit Linux can be used on all modern pSeries servers.

Furthermore, the PowerPC processors are used in the i5 servers and Windows can perform integrated as an operating system in a machine next to IBM 's own operating system, i5/OS, Linux, AIX, and special cards like Integrated PC Server (IPCS ). The i5- Server line of IBM is currently the system with the - technically correct - the highest integration factor, hence comes the name assignment "I" of integration.

Computer processors

From the IBM -developed computer processors:

  • ZSeries
  • IBM Power
  • PowerPC
  • Cell


IBM has developed a range of mainframe and partly distributed in series. In 1950 and 60 years, IBM has been known through the IBM 700/7000 series.

Unix Workstation and Server

  • RS/6000

Personal computer

Based on the model platform of IBM PCs and their successors, the market segment of the personal computer that IBM and third-party with IBM PC - compatible models is still marked.

Input and output devices

Under the brand name IBM also mice, keyboards (eg IBM Model M) terminals (eg IBM 3270), printers, paper tape reader, etc. were distributed.


As shown in section history, IBM has developed more and more to the service provider since the 1990 's.

Group Culture

Worth mentioning