Oxford [ ɒksfəd ] is the county town of Oxfordshire, England, United Kingdom. The city lies on the River Thames and Cherwell 90km north- west of London, has over 152,000 inhabitants and is the seat of the ancient and famous University of Oxford and Oxford Brookes University.
Oxford is known as the " city of dreaming spiers ", a term coined by Matthew Arnold to the harmonious architecture of the university buildings. Unlike the great rival Cambridge Oxford is also an industrial city.
Oxford first appeared at the time of the Saxons under the name Oxanforda. It goes back to the founding of the monastery of a Saxon princess and nun named Frideswide in the 8th century and was first mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle of 912. In the 10th century Oxford became a military extremely important city in the battle between the kingdoms of Mercia and Wessex.
The University of Oxford is to find the first time in documents from the 12th century. The first colleges of the University were University College ( 1249 ), Balliol ( 1263 ) and Merton College ( 1264 ).
The Christ Church Cathedral is a college chapel and a cathedral. Originally, the main church of St Frideswide, the building was extended and incorporated as a chapel in the structure of Christ Church College. Its dual function both as a chapel for the college as well as a cathedral for the Diocese of Oxford has been there since 1546. This partnership was frequently very difficult and many students were killed in the St Scholastica Day Riot of 1355.
During the English Civil War in 1642 Oxford was after the king was expelled from London, the seat of government of King Charles I., although there was strong support for the Parliamentarians in the city. The city fought under General Fairfax in 1646 for the cause of parliamentarians.
Since 1790, the Oxford Canal connected the city with Coventry and the industrial area around Birmingham. For a short time the Oxford Canal was one of the most important and most profitable routes in England, on the Oxford Canal Company transacted the bulk of trade between London and the Midlands. Were transported by the so-called narrowboats especially coal, stone and agricultural products. With the commissioning of the channel of the coal price in Oxford fell within a very short time to one eighth.
In the 1840s, the Great Western Railway and the London and North Western Railway introduced a railway link to London fro.
In the 19th century, the controversy over the Oxford Movement in the Anglican Church drew the city in the field of view of the population. The City Council of Oxford was built by Queen Victoria. Although Oxford since 1542 has the status of a city, the city hall is still called the Town Hall.
In the first decades of the 20th century Oxford experienced a big boom, especially after printing and publishing houses had settled there. As a result, the number of inhabitants increased considerably. About the same time William Morris founded the Morris Motor Company at Cowley, a suburb of Oxford. Because of this industrialization Oxford won 40,000 more residents. The business he founded still produced cars and is now as a production site of the mini to the BMW Group.
Automobile production brought many guest workers to Oxford. Along with the immigrants from Southeast Asia and the many students give the city a cosmopolitan character. This is especially true for the district Headington and Cowley Road with its many bars, cafes, restaurants, clubs, shops and Asian fast food restaurants.
In addition to the University of Oxford, the city is also home to another university, Oxford Brookes University, whose origin is traced back to the year 1865. The title " University " carries with headquarters in Headington since 1992.
Neighborhoods, pros and neighboring towns
Barton, Binsey, Blackbird Leys, Botley, Cowley, Cowley Marsh, Cutteslowe, East Oxford, Godstow, Grandpont, Greater Leys, Headington, Headington Quarry, Iffley, Jericho, Littlemore, Marston, New Headington New Hinksey, New Marston, Norham Manor, North Hinksey, North Oxford, Osney, Rising Hurst, Rose Hill, Sandhills, South Hinksey, Summertown, Temple Cowley, Walton Manor, Wolvercote, Wood Farm.
Oxford is about 90 km north- west of London and is connected via the M40 Motorway in the south with the capital and to the north of Birmingham. There are rail links to London Paddington, inter alia, Birmingham, Worcester and Bicester. Furthermore, there is a direct express bus connection between Oxford and London Victoria Coach Station, which is operated by two bus companies with multiple departures per hour.
The Oxford Canal connects Oxford with the city of Coventry. He's lost its economic importance as a transportation route and now serves only boaters on their converted to floating Apartments Narrowboats.
In Kidlington ( about 7 km north of the city center ), the airport Oxford, which is used for private and business aircraft.
Probably the most famous is probably the rowing team, which competes each year against the team from Cambridge in a race ( boat race ) on the Thames. The Kassam Stadium in Blackbird Leys is the home ground of football club Oxford United, who plays despite high investments only in the lower leagues of England.
On March 13, 1909, the German national soccer team in Oxford lost with 0:9 against the English. This remained until today the heaviest defeat of the German selection.
In addition to the so-called Rowing Punting in Oxford (as well as in Cambridge ) is extremely popular, which is similar to the Tübingen punt.
In motorcycle racing, the Oxford Speedway Elite League professional team of Oxford Cheetahs among the best known in the British Isles.
Oxford has many great tourist attractions, some of them in connection with the University, such as the Ashmolean Museum, the Pitt Rivers Museum and the Bodleian Library. In the city center of Carfax Tower is from the 11th century. In summer, boat trips on the River Thames and the Cherwell is popular. Additional points of interest
- Christ Church Cathedral
- Church of St Mary the Virgin (also known as University Church )
- St. Aloysius Church, Roman Catholic
- Clarendon Building
- Radcliffe Camera
- Botanical garden
- Numerous parks, including parks and the University of the South Park.
Twin cities of Oxford are
- Germany Bonn, Germany
- France Grenoble, France
- Nicaragua Leon, Nicaragua
- Russia Perm, Russia
- Netherlands Leiden, Netherlands
- Sweden Umea, Sweden
→ Main article: List of personalities of the city of Oxford
Literature in Oxford
The crime novels about " Inspector Morse " by Colin Dexter play in Oxford and have also been written here. For more writers who were associated with Oxford:
- JRR Tolkien ( English language and literature professor at Pembroke College, previously a student at Exeter College)
- C. S. Lewis ( Fellow of Magdalen College)
- John Henry Newman ( Fellow of Oriel College)
- Iris Murdoch ( Fellow at St Anne 's College )
- Philip Pullman
- Lewis Carroll
- Javier Marías ( Spanish writer, taught a year in Oxford, his novel All Souls plays there)
- Dorothy L. Sayers ( one of the first women students at Oxford ( Somerville College), her detective novel Gaudy Night (1935 ) is a classic of Oxford mystery literature )