Catchment area of the Oder
The Oder ( Odra Polish, Czech Odra Odra Lower, Upper Sorbian Wódra ) is a Central European power, which rises in the Czech Republic, flows through Poland and forms the border between Poland and Germany. It flows through the Szczecin Lagoon and the islands of Usedom and Wolin around the Baltic Sea. The Oder River as a border is a result of the Second World War. The Oder is 866 km long ( 898 km to Świnoujście ( Swinoujscie ) ).
Its tributaries include the Lusatian Neisse and the Warta, which lengthens as the longest tributary of the greatest length of the river system at 1045 km. The average discharge is 540 m³ / s, making the Oder to the Rhine, Danube, Inn and same is the fifth largest river in Germany. Its catchment area is in the west and southwest of the the Elbe, to the east of the Vistula River, in the south of the Danube.
Or The source is located in the Czech Republic and a half kilometers north- west of Kozlov on Fidlův Kopec (fiddle Karpacz ) in the Moravian town or mountains. The first 31 km of its course through the military training area Libavá. From the border it forms from the confluence of the Budišovka to Ostrava to the historic county boundary between Silesia (left side) and Moravia ( right side ). In Bohumín the river crosses in 195 m at the confluence of Olsa the border between the Czech Republic and Poland. The river in the Czech lands has a length of 131 kilometers and covers a catchment area of 10,288 square kilometers.
In its further course the Oder flows through Silesia and its capital Breslau ( Wrocław). From the Neisse River estuary at Ratzdorf north of Guben Brandenburg in their mid to north of Schwedt / Oder marked the border between Poland and Germany. The Oder flows through Frankfurt ( Oder), Słubice and Kostrzyn nad Odra ( Kuestrin ). Between the towns of Lebus and Odersberg the Oder flows through the Oder almost 60 km long and 12 to 20 kilometers wide, then passes through the polder countryside, near Schwedt, before embarking on river kilometer 704 at Weir Marienhof in the two arms of West Oder ( Polish:: River Western Odra ) and Ostoder (Polish: Odra Wschodnia ) shares. The West Or until Mescherin border river before it flows like the Ostoder both sides on Polish territory. The slope of the last 30 kilometers before Stettin is only a few centimeters. At the height of the dam 's lake is East and West or unite. As a so -called Pape water flows through the Oder Police ( Pölitz ) before it flows into the Baltic Sea, part of the Szczecin Lagoon.
The boundary lines of the Oder and the West Or are federal waterways in the waterways of class IV with a total length of 179 km, for which the Waterways and Shipping Office Eberswalde is responsible.
Since the Szczecin Lagoon is a bay, are the three connecting arms to the open sea inlets. Although they carry as estuaries of the Oder mostly or water to the north, but also have a significant influx of sea water into the lagoon, especially in strong north wind. Read which is at the rear ( haffseitigen ) delta formations, particularly pronounced in the Swine. Position of these arms of the sea and islands:
- Peenestrom (up to the mouth of the Peene river, the current) between the German mainland and the island of Usedom (Polish Uznam )
- Swine ( Swina ) between the islands of Usedom and Wolin (Polish Wolin ), with the waterway, Kanał Piastowski, 1945 Kaiserfahrt, built in 1875 and 1880,
- Dievenow (Polish Dziwna ) between the island of Wolin and the Polish mainland.
The Oder is navigable for 717 kilometers to Koźle ( German Cosel ) in Poland. There follows on the Gliwice Canal, which was intended as the beginning of the Danube-Oder Canal.
By straightening was the Oder, which is navigable from the Baltic upstream through the Szczecin Lagoon to Stettin (Szczecin) for seagoing vessels, since 1850 reduced from 1040 km to 866 km in length.
A high degree of channeling of the river took place in two phases: 1888-1897 and 1907-1922. In order to make the river navigable for larger ships, dams and locks were applied, and at the same time the water power for electric power generation was used to the barrages. Currently, seven hydroelectric power plants in operation, the largest part of the barrage Brzeg Dolny and has a capacity of 9.7 MW.
Since July 2007, after 62 years back occasionally runs a ferry between the German city Güstebieser Loose and the Polish village Gozdowice ( German Güstebiese ). When the vehicle is a motor boat with a paddle wheel.
In 1997, there came to the largest to date or flood. In May 2010, Or went to many places in Poland and Germany on the shore, see Oder flood of 2010.
The ten highest peak water levels at the ironworks city since 1850:
Environment and Conservation
In 1996, Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic, the " International Commission for the Protection of the Oder against Pollution " ( ICPO ). In the treaty, the States committed to making an emergency program to reduce the pollution of the Oder and its catchment area. One of the measures is then carried out, for example, the construction of shared sewage treatment plants.
Of particular importance for nature conservation on the Oder also is founded in 1995, the Lower Oder Valley National Park. The Oder is involved in the campaign Living Rivers the German Environmental Aid. This campaign consists nationwide to ensure that rivers and streams are converted back into natural landscapes.
By the first paragraph of Article 331 of the Treaty of Versailles the Oder was declared the international flow from the inflow of Oppa together with the Elbe, Danube and Memel. The Oder was placed under the administration of the International Oder Commission. This commission consisted of one representative of Poland, Prussia, Czechoslovakia, the United Kingdom, France, Denmark and Sweden.
Renewed political importance was the Oder since the end of World War II. As part of the Potsdam Agreement in 1945 separated about a quarter of the German territory in the borders of 1937 de facto and placed under provisional Polish or Soviet administration. In 1990, the so-called Oder- Neisse line was confirmed as the German eastern border, as the Federal Republic of Germany renounced all claims east of this line in the Two Plus Four Treaty and the German - Polish Border Treaty on formerly German territories.
- The Latin name Viadrus is not handed down from ancient times, but was probably in 1543 by the Frankfurter Professor Jodocus Willich - falsely - introduced for the Oder. Unaware of his neo-Latin origin, he also has been involved in etymological speculation.
- From the ancient authors mention Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historia and Pomponius Mela, De situ orbis by the tributaries of the Baltic Sea alone the Vistula, Tacitus in his Germania is no single Baltic inflow.
- Claudius Ptolemy locates in his Geographike Hyphegesis west of the Vistula three other rivers that flow into the Baltic Sea. The geographical latitude given by him to be a good relative localization of his name, despite his differences graticule from today. Then the Swine corresponds to a river called Συήβος ( Suebos, Latin: Suevus ). A source coordinate for this river he does not specify, but mentions the Suebus in the enumeration of the peoples as the boundary between Semnones and Burgundians in the inland, which corresponds to a use of the name for the Oder. A river called Οὐιαδούα (or Οὐιλδούα, graphic similarity of Α and Λ ), ie Latin Viadua or Vildua, Claudius Ptolemy located between Suebos and Vistula by the river Vistula twice as far away as the Swine. Historians believe that this river of Wieprza (German: Wipper ) corresponds to that achieved at half the distance between Swine and former Vistula estuary of the sea.
- In Old Church Slavonic texts is called the river Vjodr.
- Latin documents of the Middle Ages called the river unanimously Oddara (Adam of Bremen: Gesta Pontificum Hammaburgensis ecclesiae ) or Oddera ( Dagome Iudex ). This corresponds also in low phonetic variation, the present name in German ( "Or " Schleswig dialect " uder .") As in the Slavic languages : Czech Odra, Polish Odra ( Silesian dialect Uodra, Lower Wodra, Upper Sorbian Wódra ).
- The name researcher Jürgen Udolph suspected as Naming the Illyrian word Adra in the definition of " watercourse ", referring to a similar word in Sanskrit. The German word " vein" still meant in Old High German is not " blood vessel " or " trickle ", but generally " guts ", similar to the ancient Greek word ήτορ ( ETOR ) "heart ", " lung" or "soul."
- Another explanation derives the name Oder / Odra from the Polish drzeć, przezierać ago, which means as much as " tear, pierce, press forward, in the sense of " breakthrough to the sea ".
Alternative: After states and alphabet ordered list
- Gliwice channel: Gliwice
- Oder- Spree Canal ( leg of the Spree- Oder waterway ): Or - channel - Spree - channel - Dahme - Spreewald
- Warta - Networks - Bydgoszcz Canal - Brda ( Brahe ) - Vistula
- Oder- Havel Canal ( leg of the Havel - Oder waterway ): West Or - Hohensaaten- Friedrichsthaler waterway (channel parallel to the Oder) - Or Berger waters - Channel - Havel
- Finowkanal nor navigable predecessor of the Oder- Havel Canal
The Oder flows through or passes among others these regions:
- Country Lebus
- Or break
- Neumark (eastern part of the country Lebus, Polish: Lubusz )
- Neuenhagener Or island
- National Park Lower Oder Valley in the natural area "Lower Odertalniederung "
- Ostrava ( Ostrava, Czech Republic)
- Racibórz ( Ratibor, Poland)
- Kędzierzyn -Koźle ( Kędzierzyn - Cosel, Poland)
- Krapkowice ( Krappitz, Poland)
- Opole ( Opole, Poland)
- Brzeg ( Brieg, Poland)
- Olawa ( Oława, Poland)
- Jelcz - Laskowice ( Jeltsch - Laskowitz, Poland)
- Wroclaw (Wroclaw, Poland)
- Brzeg Dolny ( Dyhernfurth, Poland)
- Ścinawa ( Steinau supra, Poland)
- Szlichtyngowa ( Schlichting Home, Poland)
- Glogów ( Glogau, Poland)
- Bytom Odrzański ( supra Bytom, Poland)
- Nowa Sól ( Neusalz, Poland)
- Krosno ( Crossen, Poland)
- Eisenhüttenstadt ( Germany )
- Frankfurt ( Oder) ( Germany ) and Słubice (Poland )
- Lebus ( Germany )
- Kuestrin ( Kostrzyn, Poland)
- Cedynia ( Zehden, Poland)
- Schwedt / Oder ( Germany )
- Gartz ( Oder) ( Germany )
- Gryfino ( Greifenhagen, Poland)
- Szczecin ( Szczecin, Poland)
- Police ( Politz, Poland)
Szczecin Lagoon and estuaries
- At the Szczecin Lagoon ( Oderhaff ): Wolin (Poland )
- Nowe Warpno ( Neuwarp, Poland)
- Ueckermuende ( Germany )
- Usedom ( Germany )
- Lassan ( Germany )
- Wolgast ( Germany )
- Peenemünde ( Germany )
- Świnoujście ( Swinoujscie ), Poland
- Wolin (Poland )
- Kamien Pomorski ( Pomerania, Poland)
- Dziwnow ( Dievenow, Poland)