Arrows Grand Prix International
Arrows Grand Prix International was a British Formula 1 team, based in the English Leafield, which participated 382 Grand Prix 1978-2002 at. Thus Arrows is the team with the most missions without ever having won a race or the championship. Between 1991 and 1996 the team under the name Footwork Grand Prix International was renamed.
The name of Arrows is composed of the initial letters of the founder Franco Ambrosio, Alan Rees, Jackie Oliver, Dave Wass and Tony Southgate, none of which was more at the time of insolvency of the racing team in 2002 on board. The former premises of Arrows in Leafield was used F1 team at the later also failed for financial reasons Super Aguri between 2005 and 2008.
Establishment and initial success
Rees, Oliver, Wass and Southgate left the 1977 Formula 1 racing team Shadow to establish together with the Italian financier Ambrosio their own team - Arrows. As the first model was introduced for the 1978 season FA1, it came to a head: The car saw the 1978 Shadow confusingly similar. Designer Southgate had his plans simply carried along and they considered his intellectual property. But British courts granted plaintiff Shadow Law and Arrows had to build within 52 days a new chassis, the A1. The debut season brought at least eleven championship points and a second place at the Swedish Grand Prix. As the results, however, went back alone to the Italian Riccardo Patrese coming driver, the second driver Rolf Stommelen was replaced end of the year by his German compatriot Jochen Mass. In 1979, the team could not increase and won only five points. 1980 Patrese managed at the U.S. Grand Prix West in Long Beach again a second place and the team found themselves at the end of the season in seventh place from 15 designers again. At the season opener of the 1981 season to Long Beach again proved to be happy hunting ground: Patrese succeeded in qualifying the only pole position in the history of the Arrows team. However, after 24 of 80 laps he had to give up in the lead with a technical defect. At Imola, Patrese was again in second place on the podium before he left the team Brabham direction.
Tobacco million and BMW -Power
After two moderate between 1982 and 1983 was involved from 1984, the tobacco company RJ Reynolds with the brand Barclay 's main sponsor. A motor contract with BMW dropped the expectations in addition to skyrocket. However, better results were out. A solid 1985 season with 14 points and a new second place in Imola by Thierry Boutsen and Gerhard Berger faced a miserable 1986 season, in the Christian Danner in Austria import the single championship point. The Arrows -episode mostly on the reliability, the hailstones better results regularly. At the BMW turbo engines, which were considered the most powerful in the field and with which Nelson Piquet won the World Cup was in 1983 in a Brabham, it could not be. BMW announced the end of 1986 but his exit as an engine supplier in Formula 1 Arrows thus was initially because without engines.
For 1987, the American Insurance Company United States Fidelity & Guaranty (USF & G) joined them as the main sponsor and funded the maintenance and race preparation of the previous units of BMW under the name Megatron. All of a sudden the Arrows racing cars were reliable and thus became the most successful season in 1988 the team's history - although in that year succeeded no victory. Derek Warwick and Eddie Cheever drove a total of 23 championship points and catapulted Arrows for the first time among the top four constructors of formula 1 This level, however, could not keep the team. 1989 was indeed Cheever in Phoenix as a third party even on the podium and Warwick lost a secure second place in the rain of Canada by electrical problems, but it was noticeably down again.
Footwork entry and takeover
End of 1989, USF & G increased as a sponsor of the Japanese Footwork Group of the entrepreneur Wataru Ohashi took over and immediately acquired shares in the team. Ohashi contributed henceforth the economic fortunes of the racing team, Jackie Oliver kept the sporty line. Countable results remained through the transition from first. For the 1991 season, however, Ohashi had big plans: he sign an exclusive contract for engine deliveries with the resolute to return to Grand Prix racing sports car manufacturer Porsche. The German company, however, had his turbo engine still dominates the mid-1980s Formula 1, miscalculated when building his twelve-cylinder normally aspirated engine: The engine lacked clear performance and with his excess weight he carried even to handling problems at Footwork FA12 at. Even the non- qualification of both drivers at the Grand Prix of Brazil beginning of the season was disappointing. Once hired no improvement, Porsche pulled the middle of the season without points back from the World Cup. Footwork sat for the rest of the season on a Ford Cosworth units, but points were further out. For 1992, the team signed the Japanese Aguri Suzuki as a driver Michele Alboreto and next came so to Mugen engines. Slowly Footwork recovered from deep and won no fewer than six points. The end of 1993 - after another disappointing season - dried up the sponsor millions of Footwork, but Ohashi was part owner of the team.
For 1994, the team at Jackie Oliver thought better given the low budgets on a simple car to build a Ford customers engine around. At the season opener in Brazil Gianni Morbidelli caused a stir with the sixth place, but fell - as so often - with a technical defect from. In the second race in Japan Christian Fittipaldi managed fourth almost the jump on the podium. From then on, the team could not keep up with the pace of development of the enemy and fell back during the season. For 1995, committed Footwork with Taki Inoue a driver who brought less talent but rather dollars - money that the team desperately needed to survive. In the course of the season and the fast Morbidelli was replaced by pay- driver Massimiliano Papis. However, Morbidelli returned to the season finale again into Footwork cockpit back and was promptly third parties in Adelaide. For 1996, the Fahrerkarussel turned further: With sponsor Philips in the spinal hired the Dutch rising star Jos Verstappen, after all, the German Formula 3 champion of the year was 1993. But despite credible hard - customer engines countable results were hardly possible. To prevent the descent of the team at the end of the grid, the British motorsport entrepreneur Tom Walkinshaw got in his TWR Group, which had in 1995 and 1996 directed the fortunes of the Ligier team.
Entry of TWR and number 1
Walkinshaw focused from the beginning of his work with the British team on the preparation of the 1997 season. According to the complete withdrawal of the previous team owner he sought initially a return appointment of the racing team in Arrows to. Then he eiste los Yamaha engine supplier of competitor Tyrrell, to secure factory support. Next, he managed the obligation of the designer gurus John Barnard, who had made in the 1980s with the invention of the carbon-fiber monocoque and a name. Next he took with driver Pedro Diniz by Ligier to direct the money from its wealthy sponsors in the Arrows cash. When it was announced in summer 1996 that the budding world champion Damon Hill in the Williams team would get a new contract more, Walkinshaw grabbed and persuaded Hill with high content promises to bring the start with number one after Leafield. Finally sat Walkinshaw 1997 on the tires of the Formula 1 rookie Bridgestone and hoped so in some races a competitive advantage over the Goodyear tires and cars. All efforts despite Arrows began in 1997 as where the team had been in the years before: the back of the field. Even world champion Hill was able initially to perform miracles, seemed even more frustrated by the lack of competitiveness and reliability of his car to be especially. Only in his home Grand Prix at Silverstone, he became the sixth of the jump in the points. The highlight of the whole rather disappointing season was the race in Hungary: Hill was his Arrows catapulted third on the grid because of the tremendous heat, when the Bridgestone tires compared to Goodyear tires had a benefit has accrued in qualifying in top form and had. In the race he held at first quietly in the background, before the leading Michael Schumacher attack in the eleventh round in the Ferrari and the tip took over. To the astonishment of the spectators, the Briton his leadership expanded even and gave them only briefly during a refueling stops from. When Hill turned into the second to last of 77 laps and still leading with nearly 40 seconds ahead, already everyone believed in the sensation. However, the hydraulic made the whole team, which already wanted to get ready to cheer up, a spanner in the works. Although Hill was still able to go to the finish, but was overtaken in the final round of Jacques Villeneuve in Williams. For a fifth and final time a Arrows vehicle was flagged down in a F1 Grand Prix as a Second.
End of the season left Hill the team after only one year in the direction of Jordan and also Yamaha goodbye - as well as many sponsors. Diniz, however, remained on board. As drive Arrows used in the Formula 1 season 1998 a newly constructed ten cylinder of Brian Hart, who was employed under the name of Arrows. The team made a financial contribution to the development costs. The now completely black painted racing cars drove afterwards, succeeded in Monaco with a strategic masterstroke least fourth place by the Finn Mika Salo. Since the funds were becoming increasingly scarce in the absence of affluent sponsors, Walkinshaw hired in 1999 for the first time two riders who each bring both money. The Spaniard Pedro de la Rosa had the oil company Repsol in the back, Toranosuke Takagi some Japanese sponsors. While de la Rosa intimated his talent and got a contract for the 2000 season, Takagi was soon scrapped and replaced by ex- Arrows pilot Verstappen. The consolidated team again something Checkout allowed for the purchase of 2000 Supertec engines - former Renault aggregates, which were further developed by a French supplier companies. The former Sauber designer Sergio Rinland presented with the Arrows A21 a solid car on the legs, regularly traveled by Verstappen and de la Rosa in the upper middle. Again, however, prevented the unreliability better results.
For 2001, the team saddled over to former Peugeot engines, which were also serviced by a supply company called AsiaTech and prepared for racing. De la Rosa had to leave in favor of the Arrows equipped with Red Bull million Brazilian Enrique Bernoldi. The engines proved in the course of the season to be too cumbersome and therefore not competitive; only a single championship point by Verstappen in Austria was the result. At the start of the 2002 season Arrows already fought for survival. From Cosworth engines were leased, as the driver standing by the bankruptcy of the Prost team on the road Grand Prix winner Heinz -Harald Frentzen was obliged to again wanted to recommend for higher tasks in this way. Bernoldi and Red Bull remained on board. In Spain and Monaco Frentzen managed each sixth place better results than they actually would allow the car. Money for further development, however, was missing. After the main sponsor of orange in the middle of the season, his payments stopped, missed Frentzen and Bernoldi in France intentionally qualification because the funds for the race were missing. After the Germany GP at Hockenheim was finally concluded.
In the fall of 2002, the Bremen-based company German Grand Prix Racing took over the majority of shares Arrows and announced the team for the 2003 season. After further financial difficulties, the FIA did not accept the message, however. Then, insolvency proceedings Arrows opened.
In summer 2003, auctioned Minardi team boss Paul Stoddart five chassis type Arrows A23, which had been used in the 2002 season of Frentzen and Bernoldi. Minardi worked a Arrows chassis to slightly and gave the car the name Minardi PS04. The car was tested in the fall of 2003 in contemporary Minardi finish, and at the end it was an attempt to deny the 2004 season with the PS04. Ultimately, however, Minardi moved on this plan. In winter 2005/2006 Stoddart sold three A23 chassis to the former Japanese Formula 1 driver Aguri Suzuki, who after a few modifications in the first race of 2006 with his own team Super Aguri F1 SA05 under the name in the formula - 1 World Championship began. Also the later presented in SA06 still used the monocoque of the Arrows A23. However, Suzuki had to give up after about two and a half years in May 2008. In July 2008, the German entrepreneur Franz Hilmer acquired ( Formtech GmbH) the bankrupt's estate, including workshops in Leafield.
Overview of all Arrows pilots
Sequence to Grand Prix starts for Arrows / Footwork
- Riccardo Patrese Italy 1978-1981 (57 GP, 30 points)
- Belgium Thierry Boutsen 1983-1986 (57 GP, 16 points)
- Netherlands Jos Verstappen 1996, 2000-2001 (50 GP, 7 points )
- Switzerland Marc Surer 1982-1984, 1986 ( 47 GP, 8 points)
- United States Eddie Cheever 1987-1989 (46 GP, 20 points)
- Michele Alboreto Italy 1990-1992 (38 GP, 6 points )
- Brazil Pedro Diniz 1997-1998 (33 GP, 5 points)
- Spain Pedro de la Rosa 1999-2000 (33 GP, 3 points)
- Japan Aguri Suzuki 1992-1993 (30 GP, - )
- Brazil Enrique Bernoldi 2001-2002 (28 GP, - )
- Italy Gianni Morbidelli 1994-1995 (26 GP, 8 points)
- Brazil Christian Fittipaldi 1994 ( 16 GP, 6 points )
- Finland Mika Salo 1998 ( 16 GP, 3 points)
- Japan Taki Inoue 1995 ( 16 GP, - )
- Brazil Ricardo Rosset 1996 ( 16 GP, - )
- Japan Toranosuke Takagi 1999 ( 16 GP, - )
- Italy Alex Caffi 1990-1991 (13 GP, 2 points)
- Italy Mauro Baldi 1982 ( 11 GP, 2 points)
- Germany Heinz -Harald Frentzen 2002 ( 11 GP, 2 points)
- Germany Christian Danner 1986 ( 10 GP, 1 point)
- Italy Siegfried Stohr 1981 ( 9 GP, - )
- Germany Rolf Stommelen 1978 ( 9 GP, - )
- Italy Massimiliano Papis 1995 ( 7 GP, - )
- Brazil Chico Serra 1983 ( 4 GP, - )
- United Kingdom Brian Henton 1982 (1 GP, - )
- Swede Stefan Johansson 1991 (1 GP, - )
- Australia Alan Jones 1983 (1 GP, - )
- Germany Bernd Schneider 1990 (1 GP, - )