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Heads of State

Year of the Hare wood乙卯( at the beginning of the year Wood Tiger甲寅)

Syria: 1566/67 ( the year in October )


Politics and World Affairs


  • By 28 March Bavarian division of 1255: The Duchy of Bavaria and the Rhine Palatinate Duke Otto II are divided among the two sons: Louis II receives the Duchy of Upper Bavaria and the Palatinate County, Henry XIII. the duchy of Lower Bavaria. This is the first Bavarian division.
  • December 16: Otto I and his brother Walram I of Nassau share their land among themselves and justify the two main lines of the House of Nassau.
  • After a crusade against the pagan Prussians by the German Order is created at the site of a destroyed pruzzischen securing a settlement that is named Königsberg in honor of participating in the crusade King Ottokar II of Bohemia. It later developed the eponymous capital of East Prussia and coronation city of the Prussian kings.
  • William of Rubruk returns from his trip to Mongolia and back (see 1253 ).
  • From 1255: Representatives of the imperial cities appear on the diets ( regularly only from 1489 ).


Local history and Ersturkundliche mentions

  • First mention of Aarwangen, Bertschikon bei Attikon, Biezwil, Burbach, Ginsburg, Grafenau, Hemmiken, Huettwilen, Meienried, Neuenbürg, Orpund and Schielberg.
  • The monastery villages of Frauenalb join together for community Marx cell.
  • The Rietburg given the status of an imperial castle.
  • To 1255: emergence of a bourgeois patrician Council and struggle of the Council and of the citizenry to the achievement of municipal autonomy in Erfurt.

Science and Technology

  • Alexander IV, acting within the course of the Mendikantenstreits the revision of some statutes of the University of Paris.
  • Lifting of the ban in 1210 adopted at the Paris Synod ( under pain of excommunication ) of public and private reading of the natural-philosophical writings of Aristotle and the comments.
  • 1255 De ente et essentia arises, one of the early works of Thomas Aquinas.


  • Ulrich von Liechtenstein writes with the service of women, the first German novel in first person.
  • Elephant Louis IX.


  • April 20: The Regensburg Domdekan Heinrich Seemann endows the monastery Seemannshausen.
  • Pope Alexander IV and the English King Henry III. take to carry out its planned military actions against Manfred of Sicily in large bonds Sienser and Florentine merchants.
  • Jacques Pantaleon, who later became Pope Urban IV, is Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem.
  • Gerard of Borgo San Donnino are in Paris, the three major works of Joachim of Fiore - Concordia Novi et Veteris Testamenti, Expositio in Apocalypsim and psaltery decem choir it - out and adds a separate pamphlet entitled Introductorius in gospel added aeternum. Immediately after the publication of the Gospel aeternum the rejection of the Scriptures made ​​by a Commission of Cardinals in Anagni (see Spirituals ).
  • Christine Stommeln flees with 13 years from the country to the Cologne Beguines.


  • 000Juli: Albert I, King of the Holy Roman Empire and Duke of Austria († 1298 )
  • ( to ) Duccio di Buoninsegna, Italian painter († 1319 )


  • Batu Khan, Khan of the Golden Horde (* 1205 )