The district of Ludwigsburg is a district in Baden- Württemberg. It belongs to the Stuttgart Region in the Region of Stuttgart. Seat of the district is the former residence of Württemberg, Ludwigsburg, the largest town of the district. It is bordered on the north by the district of Heilbronn, on the east by the Rems- Murr district, in the south of the district-free city Stuttgart and the district of Böblingen and to the west by the Enz. The district of Ludwigsburg, as measured by the number of inhabitants, the sixth largest district of Germany.
- 2.1 Population development
- 3.1 Kreistag
- 3.2 District
- 3.3 Coat of Arms
- 3.4 District Partnerships
- 4.1 Road traffic
- 4.2 Rail transport
- 4.3 District facilities
- 5.1 Municipal Cooperation
- 5.2 Cities and towns since the district reform
- 5.3 Cities and Towns before the district reform
The district of Ludwigsburg has mainly share in the Neckar basin. The Neckar comes from Stuttgart, crosses the district area in many loops and divides it into a slightly larger western part and a smaller eastern part. The western district area is dominated by the rivers Enz and Glems. North of the Enz extends Stromberg, on both sides of the Glems Strohgäu. From Stuttgart to the north, starting form Kornwestheim, Ludwigsburg, Freiberg am Neckar and Bietigheim- Bissingen a heavily populated compression axis. This central part of the county area is overlooked by the historically significant Hohenasperg. The eastern part of the district includes the Murr and Bottwartal and has in the north still share in the Löwenstein mountains.
The list of places in the district of Ludwigsburg, contains about 210 places (towns, villages, hamlets, farms and residential places) of the district of Ludwigsburg in a geographical sense.
In the district of Ludwigsburg, there are 20 nature reserves. Taken together, they have an area in the district of Ludwigsburg of 643 ha, which corresponds to an amount of about 0.94 % of the county area.
Often the nature reserves of the districts of several communities extend. Partly also on the territory of other counties ( Buchenbachtal, Gerlinger Heath, Greutterwald and lower Rems ). The management of protected areas is the responsibility of the district of Stuttgart.
Oldest evidence of human presence in the district is of the 250,000 year old skull of Homo steinheimensis, which was found in 1933 near Steinheim an der Murr. From the Neolithic continuous settlements can be demonstrated by numerous archaeological finds. The Hohenasperg was the seat of Celtic princes, herald of the Enz by whose power the richly furnished graves at Kleinaspergle and in high village.
From 85 AD the Romans conquered the country and left their traces among others with the forts of Walheim and Benningen. In the 3rd century the conquest of the Alemanni was. After their subjugation by the Franks, the Franconian- Swabian tribal border ran through the present county area, roughly along a line from the Glems over the Hohenasperg to Lviv in Affalterbach.
In the 14th century the Counts of Württemberg began to attract more and more parts of the region itself, first in the south and east. So they bought in 1302 Marbach, 1308, the county Asperg with the Glemsgau, 1322 rule Wolfsölden and in 1336 the former imperial city Markgroningen. With the acquisition of rule Lichtenberg 1357 they established themselves in Bottwartal 1360 they beerbten the counts of Vaihingen in Enzgau. When the Dukes nunmehrigen 1595 the Margrave of Baden bought from the rule Besigheim, was, with the exception Bönnigheims and individual knightly villages the entire current county area in her hand.
In the 17th century, the region suffered greatly from wars. The Thirty Years War decimated the population. Repeated incursions of French troops 1688-1707 made for more devastation and economic damage.
A significant break was the construction of the castle and city of Ludwigsburg from 1704. Ludwigsburg grew to become the new hub of the region, at the expense of Markgroningen and Marbach, who lost their central functions. At the nucleus of today's county furnished on the 1718 Markgröninger office area Oberamt Ludwigsburg should be. 1805 won Württemberg sovereignty over the last remaining imperial knights economic areas; From now on, owned the entire area of present district of Württemberg and shared his fate.
The top offices were in 1806 and again in 1810 re-divided. In today's district area consisted in whole or in part, the upper offices Ludwigsburg, Groningen, Besigheim, Marbach, brackish Home, Waiblingen, Leonberg, Vaihingen and Maulbronn. After 1816, a petition to the new King William had failed, Markgroningen had to permanently discontinue the nearly century-old resistance to the reclassification.
1938, the upper office was expanded to " the district of Ludwigsburg " and thereby to most of the top offices Besigheim and Marbach, as well as to individual communities of the new circles Waiblingen and Vaihingen. To "circle Vaihingen " came the chief official Maulbronn and some communities of the upper brackish Home Office.
In the district reform on 1 January 1973 the district of Ludwigsburg, was newly formed, while about half of the district of Vaihingen (the other half came to Enz ) and increased by some municipalities in the counties Backnang, Heilbronn and Leonberg to its present extent. After completion of the municipal reform of the district of Ludwigsburg, yet includes 39 municipalities, including 18 cities and of these, in turn, six large district towns ( Bietigheim- Bissingen, Ditzingen, Kornwestheim, Ludwigsburg, Remseck and Vaihingen an der Enz ). Largest city of the circle is Ludwigsburg, smallest municipality is Hessigheim.
The population figures are census results (¹) or official updates by the State Statistical Office of Baden- Württemberg ( only primary residences ).
With a population growth of 18,100 inhabitants at the end of 2000 to the end of 2008 the district of Ludwigsburg, was the county with the largest gain in population in the state of Baden -Württemberg.
The district council is elected by the voters for five years and has at least 84 members. The additional mandates are Augleichsmandate according to § 22 paragraph 6 County Code. The choice of the County Council on 7 June 2009 resulted in a turnout of 52.22 % following distribution of seats (98 seats, previously 100):
The council elects the District for a term of eight years.
The District 's legal representative and a representative of the district as well as Chairman of the County Council and its committees. He directs the district office and is an official of the circle. His area of responsibility includes the preparation of the district council meetings and its committees. He shall convene meetings, directs this and implements the decisions taken there. In the bodies he has no voting rights. His deputy is the first state officials.
The district councils of the district Ludwigsburg from 1938:
The district administrators of the former district of Vaihingen from 1945 to 1972 are shown below Vaihingen district.
The chief official of the former men Oberamts are shown below Oberamt Ludwigsburg.
Coat of arms
The coat of arms of the district of Ludwigsburg shows in gold under a lying black deer rod reinforced and a red red tongue black eagle. The coat of arms was adopted on 28 January 1939 and re- awarded after the district reform in 1973 on 30 August 1974.
The stag bar represents the Duchy of Württemberg, whose dukes founded the city of Ludwigsburg and almost all of today's district area dominated very early. The eagle stands for the free imperial city until 1336 Grüningen, today Markgroningen which the guardian of the kingdom storm flag and Ludwigsburg predecessor was as Württemberg official city. The kingdom storm flag with the eagle is the emblem of the county seat.
The district of Ludwigsburg maintains since 1983 the Upper Galilee region in Israel a partnership. Since 1990, a county partnership is maintained with the county land Chemnitz in Saxony and the city of Yichang in China and since 1992 with the Pest county in Hungary. There are also links to the Province of Bergamo in Italy, which were consolidated in 2005 through a cooperative agreement since 2002.
Economy and infrastructure
The district of Ludwigsburg offers around 170 000 jobs. Unemployment is at 4.2 % (as of July 2007), just half as large as in Germany and lower than the national average. Around 40 % are engaged in manufacturing, followed by trade (15% ) and services ( 12%). In agriculture and forestry only 1 % of all employees work, where wine production in two-thirds of the municipalities. The focus industry in LB is the automotive, metalworking and plastics processing. The service sector is a growing area for years. The district of Ludwigsburg is one of the most successful business locations in Germany.
By the district leads the A 81 Stuttgart -Heilbronn -Würzburg. Furthermore, it is accessed by federal, state and county roads. The most important are the B 10 Stuttgart Pforzheim and the B 27 Stuttgart -Ludwigsburg -Heilbronn.
Rail lines that pass through the county territory, the Swiss franc train (Stuttgart -Würzburg ), the railway line branches off from the railway junction at Bietigheim- Bissingen direction Muehlacker, as well as the railway line Backnang- Ludwigsburg and the Strohgäubahn. Parts of railway lines are used by the network of S -Bahn Stuttgart. The S4 line leads from Stuttgart Ludwigsburg to Marbach am Neckar. The S5 also via Ludwigsburg Bietigheim -Bissingen. The southwestern district area is touched by the line S6 Stuttgart Weil der Stadt. Furthermore, the cities Gerlingen by the rail line U6 and Remseck are connected at the Neckar by line U14 with Stuttgart-Mitte. The so-called " Schuster car" ( R11) connects Kornwestheim with Untertürkheim.
Across the County also leads the NBS Mannheim- Stuttgart. The only station in the district is Vaihingen an der Enz in the western suburbs of Kornwestheim is the resulting 1918-1920 Kornwestheim, the second largest marshalling yard in Baden-Württemberg.
The historical development of rail transport in the circle began with the Northern Railway of the Württemberg State Railways, which ran from 1846 to Stuttgart Ludwigsburg and 1847 to Bietigheim. Here, shared the route and led in 1848 to Heilbronn or 1853 (as west train) to Muehlacker and Bruchsal on. The route of today's S6 line with the stations Korntal and Ditzingen was 1868/69 as part of the Black Forest Railway, the railway line Backnang- Bietigheim, as the branch line from Freiberg in 1879 or 1881 - then Beihingen - Heutingsheim - was opened to Ludwigsburg. In Marbach in 1894 closed the narrow- Bottwartalbahn to Heilbronn to Beilstein and South. In 1896, the freight line from Untertürkheim Kornwestheim to bypass the Stuttgart main station.
The official city of Vaihingen received in 1904 by the Württemberg Railway Company a rail connection to their far outlying main railway station. Extensive changes in the urbanization brought 1990, the opening of the new railway line Mannheim- Stuttgart, the German Federal Railroad. In 1906 the Württemberg branch lines took the Strohgäubahn Korntal- Weissach in operation. The last stretch of the Württemberg State Railways in the district came in 1916 with the secondary line Ludwigsburg- Markgroningen added.
34 km from the once 141 km long rail network have been shut down for the passenger:
Today's rail lines originated in 1926, when the community Gerlingen by the Urban tram Feuerbach was a rail link with Stuttgart, and in 1999 by connecting Remsecks to Stuttgart's city rail network.
The district of Ludwigsburg is Schulträger following vocational schools: Residential and Commercial School Bietigheim- Bissingen, Oscar Walcker School ( Industrial School ) Ludwigsburg, Carl Schaefer School ( Industrial School ) Ludwigsburg, Robert Franck- school ( Commercial School ) Ludwigsburg, Mathilde Planck school ( home economics school) Ludwigsburg and Erich Bracher School ( Commercial School ) Kornwestheim - Pattonville, also the schools for the mentally handicapped with school kindergarten in Ludwigsburg ( school on Favoritepark ) and Steinheim an der Murr (district Kleinbottwar - Paul Aldinger School ), the School of Speech disabled and sick in prolonged hospitalization with school kindergarten for children with speech defects in Ludwigsburg ( Froebel school) and school kindergarten for disabled Ludwigsburg- Hoheneck.
The district of Ludwigsburg is a 75% shareholder (25 % are owned by the city of Bietigheim -Bissingen ) of the clinics Ludwigsburg- Bietigheim gGmbH, which the hospitals in Ludwigsburg, Bietigheim- Bissingen, Marbach am Neckar, Vaihingen an der Enz and the Department of Geriatric Rehabilitation Ludwigsburg operates. The clinics in Ludwigsburg and Bietigheim- Bissingen are academic teaching hospitals of the University of Heidelberg.
The county is the sole carrier of Kreissparkasse Ludwigsburg.
Cities and Towns
Agreed administrative communities and local government associations
Cities and towns since the district reform
Cities and Towns before the district reform
Before the district reform in 1973 or before the municipal reform were part of the ( old ) district of Ludwigsburg, since 1938 a total of 50 municipalities, including 11 cities. On 1 April 1942, the community was incorporated master home in the city of Stuttgart, so that there were only 49 municipalities.
On March 7, 1968, the parliament of Baden -Württemberg has paved the way for a church reform. The Act to Strengthen the administrative force smaller municipalities, it was possible that smaller communities could voluntarily unite to form larger communities. The first in the district of Ludwigsburg made on September 1, 1971, the municipality Ottmarsheim which united with the city Besigheim. In the following years the number of municipalities decreased steadily. On 1 January 1972 the municipality Gronau was incorporated into the municipality Supreme field and was signified by the district of Ludwigsburg. All remaining municipalities in the old district of Ludwigsburg went on in the new enlarged district of Ludwigsburg, on 1 January 1973.
Largest parish of the old district of Ludwigsburg was the county town of Ludwigsburg, which in 1956 was large district since April 1, smallest municipality was Hohenstein.
The old district of Ludwigsburg last comprised an area of 424 km ² and had at the 1970 census, a total of 303 158 inhabitants.
. Population development of the old district of Ludwigsburg to 1970 All population figures are census results:
The communities of the old district of Ludwigsburg before the municipal reform. All parishes are still for the district of Ludwigsburg: