The patriarch is in late antiquity and now a church leader with jurisdiction sovereignty.

Word origin

The word comes from the Greek πατριάρχης Patriarches "first among the Fathers " or " tribal chief " or " leader of the Fatherland" ( from πατήρ pater "father" and ἄρχων archon "First, leaders", dating back to αρχή arché " top / beginning of one of men ( fathers ) dominated community, " cf hierarchy, but later transferred to " leader "), see also patriarchy. In Neugriechischem αρχη "begin, start ", means in classical Greek "power." The Greek term is used in the Septuagint in the meaning of patriarch.

General Use

Patriarch now exist in the Eastern churches ( Orthodox Church, Ancient Oriental Churches ) and the Roman Catholic Church ( Western Church and Uniate churches).

Orthodox patriarchs are at the top of the four remaining late antiquity ( ancient church ) patriarchates ( Constantinople Opel, Antioch, Alexandria, Jerusalem) and some of the great Orthodox national churches ( ie the Serbian, Russian, Bulgarian and Romanian Orthodox Church ). The other Orthodox churches have metropolitans or archbishops as leaders. The official address of the patriarch is His Holiness personally or Your Holiness.

The fifth early church patriarchy Rome today Pope seat and the Pope head of the Roman Catholic Church. The title Patriarch of the West (or: Patriarch of the West ) lead the popes since 2006 no more; in altkirchlicher tradition, he is nevertheless still the Patriarch of the Western Church. Currently, in the Roman Catholic Church bear the title of Patriarch ten people (four in the Latin Church, and six in the churches united with Rome ); with the Pope have eight patriarchs own jurisdiction (two in Latin and six in the Uniate churches).

In addition, there was also the head of the Patriarchate in Eretz - Israel ( 30-415 ) in Judaism.

Even the leaders of the Catholic Apostolic Church of Brazil and Czechoslovak Hussite Church are called patriarchs.

Orthodox Patriarch

The Greek Orthodox Patriarch see their churches as part of the One Catholic and Apostolic Church, the Orthodox Church, the Ecumenical Patriarch as an honorary chief. More autonomous churches are under one of the following patriarchs who have a say in the composition of the respective Pontiff:

  • Early church Bartholomew I, Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, Opel, Istanbul
  • Theodoros II, Pope and Patriarch of Alexandria and All Africa
  • Yuhanna X., Patriarch of Antioch and all the East
  • Theophilos III. , Patriarch of Jerusalem
  • Ilia II, Catholicos and Patriarch of All Georgia, Tbilisi, patriarchy since the 11th century, new since 1943
  • Neophyte, Patriarch of Bulgaria, Sofia
  • Kirill I, Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia
  • IRINEJ, Patriarch of Serbia
  • Daniel, Patriarch of Romania

The Ukrainian Church Kiev Patriarchate has split off from the power of jurisdiction of the Moscow Patriarchate and claimed autocephaly, and their chief the title of patriarch. This spin-off is considered to be not canonical, that is invalid because not authorized by the Moscow Patriarchate.

  • Filaret II, Patriarch of Kyiv and All Rus - Ukraine, since 1991 ( in contrast to the Metropolitan of Kiev of the canonical Ukrainian Orthodox Church Moscow Patriarchate ).

The same position as a patriarch - not in name - have other church leaders Church Title projecting an autocephalous Orthodox Church, Orthodox Church see.

Ancient Near Eastern patriarchs

The churches of the Oriental patriarchs recognize the Council of Chalcedon not. The following Patriarchs and catholicoi are facing churches are autocephalous or consider themselves as such:

  • Alexandrian rite Tawadros II, Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of All Africa ( Copts ), Cairo, Alexandria
  • Abune Mathias, Patriarch and Katholikus of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, autocephalous since 1950, patriarchy since 1959
  • Abune Dioscorus, Patriarch of Eritrea, Asmara, patriarchy since 1998
  • Antioch ( westsyrischer ) rite Ignatius Aphram Karim II, Patriarch of Antioch and all the East, ( Jacobites ), Damascus
  • Baselios Marthoma Paulose II, Catholicos of the East, Kottayam, Kerala ( India) ( in contrast to the Catholicos of India, which depends on the Jacobite Patriarch of Antioch and all the East )
  • Armenian rite ( Armenian Apostolic Church ) Karekin II Nersissian, Supreme Patriarch and Catholicos of All Armenians, cathedra: Echmiadzin; Office: Vagharshapat
  • Aram I, Catholicos of the Great House of Cilicia, before 1915: Sis
  • Nourhan Manougian, Armenian Patriarch of Jerusalem
  • Mesrop Mutafyan, Armenian Patriarch of Constantinople Opel
  • East Syriac rite ( " Nestorians " ) Mar Dinkha IV, Catholicos and Patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East, cathedra: Seleucia- Ctesiphon (Babylon ); Headquarters: Chicago, USA
  • Addai II, Catholicos and Patriarch of the Ancient Church of the East, Baghdad, patriarchy since 1968

Some church leaders bear the title of Catholicos Patriarch addition to or instead of a title. When the Armenians catholicoi go ahead with the patriarch.

Roman Catholic Patriarch

The Patriarchate of Rome or of the West, the Occident or the West Church was the only western of the five original Patriarchates early church. The remaining form the Early Church Orthodox patriarchates ( see there). On the run from the popes since the 5th century title Patriarch of the West Patriarch of the West or waived Pope Benedict XVI. in 2006, his successor Pope Francis no longer used the title. However, according to the traditional Catholic understanding of the Pope exercises the patriarchal jurisdiction over the Western Church and all areas which do not belong to another patriarchal jurisdiction.

Within the Latin Church, there are currently four patriarchs. Three of them are in front with patriarchal dioceses, one is standing as archbishop archbishop.

  • Latin Church: With its own jurisdiction Fouad Twal, Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem
  • Filipe Neri António Sebastião do Rosário Ferrão, Patriarch of the East Indies, Archbishop of Goa and Daman
  • Patriarch of the West Indies ( vacant since 1963)

Of the Patriarch of the Latin Rite (except Jerusalem), the patriarch of the churches united with Rome the Eastern rites are to be distinguished, as head of their churches in their own right ( sui iuris ) over the honor of rights, no powers have ( own jurisdiction ).

  • Eastern Catholic Churches ( own jurisdiction ) Ibrahim Isaac Sidrak, Coptic Patriarch of Alexandria
  • Béchara Pierre Raï, Maronite Patriarch of Antioch and All the East (cardinal bishop)
  • Ignatius Joseph III. Younan, Syrian Patriarch of Antioch and all the East
  • Gregory III. Laham, Patriarch of Antioch Melchite and all the East, - of Alexandria, - from Jerusalem
  • Louis Raphael I. Sako, Patriarch of Babylon
  • Nerses Bedros XIX. Tarmouni, Patriarch of Cilicia of the Armenians

In the Melkite Greek Church there are nominally three patriarchates ( Patriarchalsitze ), in the other each one.

A same position as the patriarchs have the major archbishops as heads of some union church. The only differences are in the honorary primacy of the patriarch and the mode of entry into office. For major archbishops of the Pope must confirm the choice before the Chosen enthroned and can take office. For Patriarch confirmation of the election is not required. The newly elected Patriarch asks the Pope in writing only to the so-called Ecclesiastica Communio.