Theodore Racing (徳 利 赛车 队 香港) was a motor racing team, which belonged to the people living in Hong Kong businessman Theodore " Teddy" Yip. The team was engaged from 1977 to 1984 in Formula 1 and in the Aurora and the CART series. In some years, the team designed their own racing cars. At times, it was closely associated with the Formula 1 racing teams Shadow and Ensign. The white-painted cars from Theodore were often provided with unfamiliar Chinese characters and brought in the opinion of observers a " mysterious Asian flair " in international motorsport. Particularly important for the team had the traditional Macau Grand Prix, as the initiator Yip applies.
- 2.3.1 1980: Interlude - Theodore -Shadow
- 2.3.2 1981: A point in the first race
- 2.3.3 1982: Only one finish
- 2.3.4 1983: Continued cooperation with Ensign
- 3.1 1978
- 3.2 1979
- 3.3 1980
- 6.1 Formula 1 World Championship 6.1.1 Statistics in Formula 1
- 6.1.2 All race results in Formula 1
- 6.2.1 pilots
- 6.2.2 career of Theodore in the Cart series
Owner of the team Theodore Racing was Teddy Yip, a 1907 born in Indonesia businessman of Chinese descent with Dutch nationality. 1942 could be Yip in Hong Kong, where he established an import and export business for rice. Later he participated in travel agencies, hotels and casinos. In 1962 Yip in Macau Sociedade de Turismo e Diversoes de Macau, a company that temporarily held the monopoly on gambling in the Portuguese colony and chatted further activities in the leisure and tourism industry. Yip is one of the central figures in the tourism development of Macao. In the 1970s, he was one of the wealthiest businessmen in Asia.
The economic success of his company allowed Yip since the 1950s to devote his free time to the world of motorsport. By 1963, he took over as driver of car races in part, especially at the Macau Grand Prix, which he finished in 1963 as a third party. After that, Yip focused on the management of his own racing team, which he regularly brought up in the 1980s into Macau at the start.
Since the early 1970s, Yip expanded its engagement in international motorsport. From 1974 to 1976 he supported the Formula 5000 inserts by Alan Jones, Brian Redman and Vern Schuppan. In 1974, Teddy Yip for the first time in Formula 1, three years in the American Cart- series. In Formula 1, he went on multiple fronts. In addition to supporting independent racing teams Yip established its own racing team, which at times even constructed their own vehicles. Between the Formula 1 involvement of the team took part in the consultations held under Formula 1 rules Aurora series.
End of the 80s Yip finished slowly be motorsport as well as economic engagement and handed over his business empire to his son. Yip died on 11 July 2003.
Theodore Racing in the Formula 1 World Championship
Theodore Racing was involved over the years in various forms in the Formula 1. Theodore started as a sponsor ( 1974-1977 ), became the customer team on ( 1978) and eventually became an independent work team that own Formula 1 cars constructed ( 1981-1983 ).
1974-1977: Theodore as a sponsor
1974: driver sponsorship
In 1974, Teddy Yip participated for the first time in Formula 1 At that time there was the team Theodore Racing is not in the formula 1 as an organizational unit. Theodore Yip was only sponsor Vern Schuppans who committed his Formula 1 debut in Ensign factory team in 1974. In the message list, the name Theodore did not appear later this year. Schuppans involvement in Ensign was created in seven races. The Australian qualified three times, but only came in his first race - the Grand Prix of Belgium - to the finish.
1976: A plant - March for Theodore Racing
Two years later the name Theodore Racing was first published in the Formula 1 World Championship: Yip earned the right to driven by Ronnie Peterson second car of the March factory team for the United States Grand Prix West to report under the name Theodore Racing. Irrespective of this description organized the March race for the Peterson car that drove on the Long Beach Grand Prix Circuit as 10 across the finish line.
1977: Half a year with Ensign
The Grand Prix of Great Britain 1977, Theodore Racing Team Hong Kong appeared in Formula 1 under this name an Ensign N177 has been reported for the French racing driver Patrick Tambay, who undertook his first experiments here in Formula 1.
1977 decreed Theodore Racing not yet its own infrastructure. Theodore was only title sponsor for the second car of the Ensign team, which was only one other vehicle before ( for Clay Regazzoni ) competed in the Formula 1 World Championship. Yip took it a procedure which was not uncommon in the 1970s: To carry the sponsors of the driver due account of different drivers of the same team could be reported under separate, divergent terms. Ensign organized then in the second half of the season in 1977 racing for both Regazzoni and for Tambay. Regazzoni car was reported under the name Team Tissot Ensign with Castrol, while Tambays car took nominally for Theodore Racing Hong Kong.
Although both drove Ensign pilots a N177; Tambays car, however, was more competitive than the works cars Regazzoni. Teddy Yip presented Tambay the funds for a high-performance Cosworth engine ready, which was located on the current processing status, while Regazzoni in financially troubled Ensign team was able to rely on a less stable used engines. Yip funded Tambay also private tests that were denied Regazzoni.
The secured financing his efforts paid off for Tambay aus.Bereits in his first race continued the Frenchman in Theodore Ensign against the experienced Regazzoni by: During the Ticino in the qualifiers failed to Tambay qualified for the 16th place ahead of Patrick Depailler in Tyrrell P34 and Jean -Pierre Jabouille in turbo -powered Renault. In the race itself, he retired after three rounds due to electrical defect. In the following race, Tambay initially qualified repeated before Regazzoni; his best grid position was seventh place at the Grand Prix of Austria. But the season end the Ticino achieved a consolidation of its services, so he usually started before Tambay. The only non- qualification of Theodore Ensign was recorded at the Grand Prix of the United States.
Tambay already drove in his second race, the Grand Prix of Germany, his first championship point one when he takes on the winner Niki Lauda in the Ferrari was sixth with only one and a half minutes behind. Two fifth places in the Netherlands and Canada were Tambay the first world championship with five points finish. Similarly, many Regazzoni had retracted during the season.
1978: Customer Team
After three years of mere sponsorship in Formula 1 Yip started his own racing team, which had a separate infrastructure for the 1978 season. Theodore Racing was structured as a customer team, initially so appointed an engine and a chassis that he bought at an established manufacturer. It was one of the last teams that followed this concept.
Theodore Racing began in 1978, first a car one that Yip had taken over from Ralt and was named Theodore TR1. After the car had been found to be not competitive, Theodore turned over to cars from Walter Wolf, who brought no improvement.
The Theodore TR1 was developed by Ralt, a British design office, which was led by former Brabham designer Ron Tauranac. Ralt the car had initially want to use in Formula 1 itself; as this plan, however, was not implemented due to financial reasons, Tauranac sold the car to Teddy Yip .. He was regarded as a "massive, entirely conventional car ", which already made an outdated impression during his presentation.
For the first two races of the season Theodore reported the U.S. racing driver Eddie Cheever. Neither Argentina nor Brazil succeeded Cheever qualification. For the third race Cheever joined the team Hesketh Racing, whereupon the Finnish debutant Keke Rosberg took his place at Theodore.
In his first race, the Grand Prix of South Africa, Rosberg qualified the TR1 for the 24th starting position (before Cheever in Hesketh ). In the race itself Rosberg came just 15 laps in, then broke a technical component. In the official statistics, a failure is recorded due to faulty clutch, report other sources, the brakes were collapsing. As a result of this error Rosberg collided with Theodore in a boundary wall. The car was badly damaged. Rosberg was uninjured, but took a leaking petrol fumes and suffered a respiratory irritation.
The team entered on to the next world championship races until the Spanish Grand Prix in an unchanged lineup, but Rosberg failed regularly on the qualification or prequalification. An exception was the BRDC International Trophy at Silverstone, which did not count for the World Cup: Here Rosberg managed to go first to the finish line. It should be the first and only win of Theodore in Formula 1. However, this victory is due to special circumstances. On one hand, remained a part of the competition this race away; other hand, the race was marked by heavy downpours that could cause the muddy run-off areas. Numerous propelled against Rosberg drivers like Niki Lauda in the Brabham got stuck in the mud. Overall, only four drivers finished the race.
After the Grand Prix of Spain, in which Rosberg had failed at the pre-qualification, Teddy Yip was on the TR1. The Grand Prix of Sweden, France and Britain had made the team to restructure itself.
The Grand Prix of Germany Theodore appeared again. The team has now reported the Wolf WR3 and in later races the Wolf WR4, each equipped with a naturally-aspirated Cosworth. For them, it was developed by modifications of Harvey Postlethwaite Wolf WR1, with Jody Scheckter the debut race of the team in 1977 had been able to win. The WR 3 was used once in 1977 in the Wolf factory team three times, and in 1978, the WR 4 had only a single race experience ( Scheckter at the Grand Prix of Argentina 1978).
At the Grand Prix of Germany qualified Keke Rosberg with the painted in colors Theodore WR3 for the 19th starting position. He finished the race in tenth. During the subsequent Grand Prix of Austria went ervom 25th starting position in the race. He also came to the finish, but had completed only 47 of 54 laps and was not considered due to insufficient distance.
At the Grand Prix of the Netherlands Theodore first appeared with the WR4. The car was worse than the WR3. Add to Zandvoort Rosberg qualified again for the 24th starting position, left in the race but after an accident due to clamping of the gas flue. The subsequent Italian Grand Prix was the last Formula 1 race where the team participated in this season. Rosberg missed the WR4 prequalification.
14 days after the Italian Grand Prix Racing Theodore the Wolf WR3 reported for the first time for the national British Formula 1 Championship, the so-called Aurora AFX series, in which the team was engaged by the end of 1980.
Theodore as a factory team
After a break of two years as a design engineer Theodore returned back to Formula 1. The Formula 1 involvement of the team in the early 1980s based on the organizational Shadow team that Yip had taken in 1980 shortly before its bankruptcy. After two difficult years, he also took over the financially troubled team Ensign, whose infrastructure was the basis for Theodore's participation in the Formula 1 1983 season. Yip's Formula 1 approaches were ultimately unsuccessful. The acquisition of established racing stables, which were in economic difficulties in the emerging turbo era was not a concept that might exist with the permanent. Teddy Yip saw this one in late 1983 and introduced, as he did not want to take associated with the turbo engines financial challenges on racing in Formula 1.
1980: Interlude - Theodore -Shadow
1979 and 1980 appeared the Theodore team not in the Formula 1 World Championship. During this time, Teddy Yip was only represented as a sponsor in the Formula 1 World Championship. Yip supported once again Mo Nunn's Ensign team; while he financed largely the development and construction of the Ensign N179.
In the spring of 1980 resulted for Teddy Yip is a recent entry into Formula 1, The Founded in 1971 British-American Team Shadow, the Mitt Eder 1970s won a World Cup race and had achieved until 1977, a series of small successes, was since the loss the main sponsor, and a part of the technical staff in financial difficulties and was, after the 1980 season for the newly designed Shadow DN11 had proved ineffective, before the bankruptcy.
In April 1980 Teddy Yip took over the Shadow team. From the Monaco Grand Prix, the team has been reported as Theodore Shadow. After the team with the Shadow DN12 Yip funded entirely new neither here nor could qualify in the subsequent race in Spain and France, Yip introduced in June 1980, the racing operation of Theodore Shadow.
In the second half of the season 1980 Yip restructured the Shadow team in terms of a new beginning in season 1981. Jo Ramirez was hired as team manager, and former Shadow designer Tony Southgate came back into the team. On the basis of the Shadow team and the involvement of its own, dedicated in Aurora Series racing team as written in autumn, a new team, which was brought under the name Theodore Racing in the Formula 1 World Championship in 1981 at the start.
1981: A point in the first race
The newly formed team Theodore Racing first appeared at the Grand Prix of South Africa, one held in February 1981 race, which had no world championship status. As designed by Southgate new car was not yet ready, the team reported here the Theodore TR2, a barely modified version of last year's Shadow DN12. Driver was Geoff Lees, who had driven the car in the previous year for Shadow -Shadow or Theodore.
The first world championship race, the U.S. Grand Prix West, the newly designed Theodore TY01, a conventional Saugmotorauto with wing profiles in the side boxes appeared. Theodore began just a vehicle; as a driver Patrick Tambay first came back into the team, which was tantamount to the season opener at Long Beach in sixth place and his team brought a world championship point. More points did not exist, however. In the summer of 1981 Tambay moved to Equipe Ligier. He was then replaced for the remainder of the year by the Swiss Marc Surer. Surer came in eight races five times to the finish, but missed each the points.
1982: Only one finish
For the 1982 season, Tony Southgate designed by Theodore TY02 a new vehicle. The TY02 was still a conservative modular car that was technically undemanding, but attractive lines than did its predecessor. In a season in which increased the spread of turbocharged engines, Theodore remained a naturally aspirated team, which used a conventional eight-cylinder Cosworth. A total of two cars emerged; the first copy was ready in March 1982.
Theodore Racing was instructed in 1982 to the use of Paydrivern. Initially, the team signed the Irishman Derek Daly. At the first race of the season, the Grand Prix of South Africa, he came in 14th place finish. It was the only finish for Theodore throughout the season. She has yet been reached with the previous model TY01. The TY02, which was reported from the following race, never saw the finish line: Eight times missed the pilot of the TY02 qualification, six times they fell as a result of driving errors or technical defects of.
The team suffered during the entire 1982 season with a strong Personalfluktation and a high number of accidents. After Derek Daly had played the first three races of the season for Theodore, he moved to the established Williams team, where he replaced Carlos Reutemann. Daly's successor at Theodore was Jan Lammers, who was reported from the Belgian Grand Prix six times. In his first three appearances for Theodore Lammers missed each qualification. Before the Grand Prix of Detroit Lammers was asked to replace the French Renault team Alain Prost, who had been injured in the previous event. Lammers decided, however, to remain at Theodore. Prost finally drove in Detroit despite his injury for Renault. Lammers had an accident in training of Detroit heavy: His TY02 / 1 crashed due to a driving error against a concrete wall and was severely damaged. Lammers broke his wrist in the accident and had to skip the next race.
Instead of the Dutchman Briton Geoff Lees has been reported for the Grand Prix of Canada; Emergency vehicle was here for the first time, the second TY02, which had been rebuilt for the North American race. Lee qualified for the penultimate launch site. On race day Lee was involved in the heavy launch accident in which the Osella driver Riccardo Paletti was killed: Lees, who launched a series behind palletizing, drove into the Osella the Italian, who had recently with over 200 km / h on Didier Pironi left standing Ferrari was collided. Lee was unhurt, but his car was severely damaged. Since the first TY02 was not lost as a result of Lammers ' accident ready, the Theodore team could not take part in the restart for the Grand Prix of Canada.
Under the following three races Theodore reported again Jan Lammers. During this time he was able to qualify only once. At his home race, the Grand Prix of the Netherlands, he was the last one in the race and retired after 31 laps due to an engine defect from. Before demmit the Grand Prix of France Theodore dissolved the contract with Lammers; His successor was the Irishman Tommy Byrne, who celebrated his Formula 1 debut here. Byrne qualified in five events twice, but never got to the finish.
1983: Continued cooperation with Ensign
As well as using his own racing team Teddy Yip had in 1981 and 1982 continue to be supported Mo Munns Ensign team financially. Yip enabled the team in late 1981, for example, the move to larger workshops and financed the construction of several Ensign cars. At the end of the 1982 season, which was equally unsuccessful run for Ensign as for Theodore, Yip took over the Ensign team and merged it, as he had already done it two years earlier with Shadow, with his own team. The new team was operating out of the former Ensign - based and used the infrastructure there, but was reported regardless of the Formula 1 1983 season under the name Theodore Racing Formula 1 World Championship.
The team brought in 1983 Theodore N183 at the start, the Nigel Bennett had originally designed for Ensign. Unlike before, in the years 1983 Theodore reported a two- car team. Drivers were the Colombian Roberto Guerrero, who had previously started a year for Ensign, and former motorcycle world champion Johnny Cecotto from Venezuela who has made his Formula 1 debut here. Cecotto achieved during the U.S. Grand Prix West a world championship point for Theodore, but was then able to reach no further successes more. During the season he failed four times to the pre-qualification. Guerrero scored no points. After the Grand Prix of Europe at Brands Hatch Theodore moved due to the lack of success back in Formula 1.
Theodore Racing in the Aurora F1 series
In the years 1978-1980 Theodore competed in the British Formula 1 championship, which bore the name of Aurora FX Series. It was a junior series in which mostly young drivers at disused Formula 1 vehicles should learn how to deal with Grand Prix cars. Most races were held on British lines.
Fourteen days after the last of Theodore World Cup race of the Formula 1 season 1978, the team reported for the first time to a race of Aurora AFX Championship. It was the race at Snetterton, the last race of the season. As a driver, the Irishman Dave Kennedy was reported that started the Wolf WR3. Kennedy was able to achieve an unusual success in this Serei: In his first race with a Formula 1 car he passed, inter alia, the established Tony Trimmer McLaren in the race could ultimately gain superior. Kennedy was, although he was only driven a race with 22 points twelfth of the Aurora Championship.
In the season 1979 Theodore Racing approached exclusively in the Aurora series. The team continued to go with David Kennedy, was reported at the start of a Wolf WR6, which had previously been used occasionally in the Formula 1 World Championship a year by the Wolf factory team. Kennedy was successful. He participated in 14 of 15 races of the championship and won three races. He also achieved a second place and five third places among others. With 63 points, he finished the season second behind Rupert Keegan, who had for the Charles Clowes Racing Team 65 can enter.
1980 drove Desiré Wilson, Kevin Cogan, Geoff Lee and Kim Mather for Theodore Racing. Emergency vehicles were the Wolf WR3 and WR4, which now wore some signs of wear, and no guarantee of success were. The best performance was shown by Desiré Wilson: She won the Easter race at Brands Hatch. She was thus the first and so far only woman to win a Formula 1 race. Desiré Wilson joined the Aurora Championship 1980 with 21 points in sixth from; she was so Theodore's best driver. Kevin Cogan and Kim Mather brought about yet each a podium position.
From the summer of 1980, Theodore Racing Formula 1 World Championship turned back to exclusively.
Theodore in the CART series
In the first years of his involvement in the CART series of the United States, Theodore exclusively focused on the 500-mile race at Indianapolis. Here In contrast to Theodore F1 commitment stood soon successes.
1977, at Theodore's first deployment in Indianapolis, Clay Regazzoni was already after 25 round by problems with the fuel pressure.
1978 Theodore did not come with its own team in Indianapolis, but sponsored the race winner Al Unser, a good friend Yip, who was this even in his Formula 1 commitment to assist you.
In 1979, Mike Mosley in a house built by Dan Gurney and utilized by Theodore Eagle third place in Indianapolis and tenth place overall. The following year, Mosley was in Indianapolis from after five rounds and 1981 reached Vern Schuppan, the Yip already supported in Formula 5000, for Theodore at the wheel of a McLaren again in third place.
1982 Theodore denied in cooperation with True sport for the first time the entire season. As a pilot, Bobby Rahal was committed. Although only the eleventh rank was achieved in Indianapolis, but Rahal reached during the season seven podiums and two victories.
In addition, Theodore sat in Indianapolis, type a South African Desiré Wilson for the Eagle. However, they failed to qualify for the race itself.
Despite the success of the cooperation with True Sports was dissolved at the end of 1983, and Theodore sponsored cars of the team Bignotti - Cotter to 1984, after Theodore's withdrawal from Formula 1 to return with a dedicated team and a self-developed car in the CART series.
The in-house development, the Theodore TY 184, but quickly proved uncompetitive and was, despite a fourth place by Jim Crawford at Sainsonauftakt in Long Beach, used only sporadically in the sequence. So were the pilot, next to the Italian Bruno Giacomelli Crawford greater success was still used, denied. At the end of the year Yip stopped his CART activities and withdrew.
Theodore in Macau
Of particular importance for Teddy Yip was the Macau Grand Prix, a motorsport event, which will take place on the Guia Circuit in Macau in several motorsport classes since 1954 every year. She is currently out to tender for the Formula 3 as well as for touring cars and motorcycles. Yip is one of the initiators of this race and took part regularly until 1963 as a driver in the event. His first assignment was scheduled for 1955 in the touring car class; Yip had his message retire but after he had his Jaguar XK 120 heavily damaged in training.
Since the 1960s, Yip announced his racing Theodore Racing to the Macau Grand Prix, mainly in the Formula 3 class. Theodore Racing was one of the most successful teams in Macau: Between 1975 and 1984, the team, the Formula 3 race was won six times on the road course. In the 1980s, Yip committed repeatedly Formula 1 stars to increase the attractiveness of the race. So included performances by Ayrton Senna, Nelson Piquet, Keke Rosberg, Rick Mears and Patrick Tambay in Macau for Theodore on.
Facts and Figures
Formula 1 World Championship
Statistics in Formula 1
All race results in Formula 1
- Italy Bruno Giacomelli (1984 )
- United States Mike Mosley ( 1979-80 )
- Switzerland Clay Regazzoni (1977 )
- United States Bobby Rahal (1982 )
- Australia Vern Schuppan (1981 )
- South Africa Desiré Wilson ( 1982)
Career of Theodore in the Cart series
T = Training Indy Indianapolis, Indy R = Race Indianapolis, DNQ = not qualified
The system of scoring changed several times 1977-1984. In the years 1981 and 1982 the race results from Indianapolis were not rewarded with points.