His school education Alfred Cuthbert received first by private tutors. Later he attended the Princeton College in New Jersey, where in 1803 he graduated. He then studied law and was admitted in 1805 to the bar; however, he has not practiced law. In 1809 he commanded an infantry regiment with the rank of Captain.
His first political office was Cuthbert 1810-1813 as a deputy in the House of Representatives of Georgia held. Thereafter, he was elected as representative of the Democratic-Republican party for the retired William Wyatt Bibb House of Representatives of the United States, where he served from December 13, 1813 until his own resignation on November 9, 1816. From 1817 to 1819 he sat in the Senate of Georgia, before he returns to the U.S. House of Representatives and there graduated in 1827 three full terms of office of 4 March 1821 to 3 March. In 1826 he abandoned a bid again.
Following the resignation of U.S. Senator John Forsyth, who joined the Office of the U.S. Secretary of State on July 1, 1834 Alfred Cuthbert won the overdue election. He took his seat in Congress after a re-election in 1837 January 12, 1835 to March 3, 1843 to true. After retiring from the Senate, he retired from public life to his country seat in Jasper County. There Cuthbert died in July 1856. He was buried in the Summerville Cemetery in Augusta.