Satsuma (Japanese萨摩 国, Satsuma no kuni ), also Sasshū (萨 州) was an old province of Japan, and lay on the territory of today's Kagoshima prefecture on Kyushu.
In 702, a revolt of Hayato took place in the region and the Shoku Nihongi Chronicle writes:
"8 Month, 1st day: Tane Satsuma and broke the relationship and did not obey the king's command. So (the government ) sent an army, conquered them, counted the population and put an officer. "
Satsuma was then cleaved from the province of Hyūga and a governor for the defense of this borderland (唱 更 国 司) was appointed.
In 11 of the 13 districts ( kori / gun) the Hayato and lived only in the districts Izumi (出水 郡) and Taki (高 城 郡) north of the river Sendai -gawa citizens from other provinces were settled. This can also be seen from the fact that the villages Koshi (合 志), Akita (饱 多), Uto (宇 土) and Takuma (托 万) in the district Taki, had names of districts in the northern province of Higo. The provincial capital ( Kokufu ) was also located in the district of Taki at today Satsumasendai.
The province was of 1197 to dominated by the Shimazu as Shugo daimyo or later, from 1602 as part of the fief of Satsuma, which also included the adjoining province Ōsumi.
1871, the province fell to the abolition of the feudal system and in the establishment of the prefectures of Kagoshima Prefecture.
The Satsuma province was named after the Satsuma mandarins, because from there the mid-19th century, the first mandarin trees were exported to the United States.