Alkmaar ( Alkmaar German ) ( listen / i?) ( West Frisian: Alkmaar ) is a city in the province of North Holland, Netherlands. To her also the village Oudorp belongs to the north and half of the village Koedijk (see also: Langedijk ). The population was on 1 January 2013 at 94 531. The total area of the municipality is 31.76 km ².
Location and economic
Alkmaar is located about 50 km north of Amsterdam, between the North Sea and the IJsselmeer. The city has highway and rail connections, and many retail stores. There are several small industries and a wholesale company with electrical parts. The city has a hospital, several schools and corresponding cultural institutions.
Villages within the municipality are
- Koedijk ( Koedík )
- Oudorp ( Ouddurp )
Alkmaar celebrated its 750th anniversary in 2004.
In 1254 Alkmaar was granted by the Dutch Count William II, the city law. But already in the 11th century came to a church that belonged to the parish of Heiloo, a settlement of traders and farmers.
The city in 1573 as a symbol of the Dutch struggle for freedom and got their motto: " The Victorious " ( Alcmaria victrix ). As in the Eighty Years' War, the Spanish had taken after laborious struggle Haarlem, they advanced on Alkmaar and besieged the city. But by the courage of the defenders of the city, the battle fatigue of the besiegers and tactical flooding the surrounding polders had the besiegers on October 8, 1573 to give up. Similar to sufferings of this day is still celebrated every year.
In the early 17th century, Alkmaar had to suffer from the religious strife between various Protestant directions.
The cheese market
Famous Alkmaar held since 1622 by the cheese market (Dutch Alkmaarse Kaasmarkt ). This market is held every Friday between Easter and autumn. The drama with the man clothed in white " cheese -makers " always attracts many onlookers. In 1916, for example, around 300 tonnes of cheese per market day were sold. To this day, the tradition of cheese production has changed considerably, but not the interest of the people. Every year about 300,000 people the Alkmaar cheese market. The cheese market is the only one in the entire Netherlands, which still maintains the old traditions of the sale. So is the cheese market from the first Friday in April to the first Friday in September on Fridays mornings. A market day in Alkmaar every time a new major event. In the morning, the entire marketplace is first of all thoroughly cleaned and cleaned. Subsequently, the loaves of so-called " translators " piled in long rows above and next to each other. To 10:00 clock then the bell rings as the starting signal. Then run the cheese carriers - often equipped with large carrying stretchers made of wood - crisscross through the marketplace. The cheeses are extensively tested and offered thereon. Bargaining is an important part of the purchase, which is always sealed with a handshake.
The cheese carriers' guild
Since 1593 there is one in Alkmaar cheese carriers guild. This guild consists of four groups of seven carriers, which are to identify and distinguish the different color of the hats. These colors include red, green, blue and yellow. Over these four groups is the cheese father; this can be seen on his black cane with a silver knob.
The Dutch Cheese Museum
The museum ( Netherlands Kaasmuseum ) is located right at the market in the former Waaggebäude. It describes the history of the production of dairy products by the passage of centuries in conjunction with the associated trade and the living conditions of the rural population. The collection consists among other things of historic artefacts, film footage, as well as paintings and drawings. Even the museum building itself is worth a visit. It dates from the 14th century and is mostly still preserved original interior and exterior. Under the historic roof on the first floor part of the collection is housed.
The Municipal Museum
In the Municipal Museum of Alkmaar ( Alkmaar Stedelijk museum ), among others, is an extraordinary collection of old master paintings from the 16th and 17th centuries, including to find the famous picture of the interior of the Church of Lauren Pieter Saenredam. Furthermore, many other famous and interesting paintings that relate to, among other things, on the Spanish siege in 1573, to be found there.
- Geographical location = 52 ° 38 '1 " N, 4 ° 44 ' 48" O52.6336111111114.7466666666667
The National Beer Museum
The National Beer Museum " De Boom" (Nederlands Beer Museum De Boom) is located in an old brewery building from the 17th century. It presents the whole process of brewing and many more things about beer. The visitor gets an overview of the history of this drink and its role in the Netherlands and a city like Alkmaar. After visiting the museum, one of the 86 Dutch beers in the " tasting bar" will be tested in the basement of the building.
- Geographical location = 52 ° 37 ' 56 "N, 4 ° 45 ' 2" O52.6322222222224.7505555555556
The Old Town
The picturesque old town with its old houses, including the " house with the ( dating from the year 1573? ) Ball " with wooden gables, and the small canals is a sight in itself. Alkmaar has many small museums. On the edge of downtown, on the site of the former theater " Het Gulden Vlies " where Rudi Carrell made his first performances as a boy, it's center a monument was set in 2007. With installation of the bronze bust of the historic square of the town of Alkmaar was officially appointed " Rudi Carrellplaats ". Was created the artwork of sculptor Carsten Eggers. The inscription of the monument is bilingual: Dutch and German.
The St. Laurens Church
The Great or St. Laurens Church ( Grote of St. Laurenskerk ) dates from the 15th century and has two old, well-preserved organs, with older dates from the year 1511; the other organ was manufactured in the 17th century by the German organ builder Franz Caspar Schnitger. In Alkmaar itself ( on a bulwark ) and Oudorp there are some quaint old windmills.
The most important sports club in Alkmaar, the professional football club AZ Alkmaar. The AZ had its largest-ever time in the early 1980 's. 1981 brought the club with the Dutch championship and the Dutch cup and pulled the double in the same year the finals of the UEFA Cup. Today AZ Alkmaar heard again the most successful football clubs in the Netherlands. 2009, the club was the second time Dutch champion. In the southeast of the town is the finished in 2006, AFAS stadium of the club.
Alkmaar is connected by twinning with
- United Kingdom United Kingdom: Bath in Somerset England
- France France: Troyes, in the Aube
- Germany Germany: Darmstadt, Hesse
- Hungary Hungary: Tata
- Italy Italy: Bergamo, Lombardy
Sons and daughters of the town
- Mohammed Ajnane, football player
- Ephraim Beks, singer of the band Lexington Bridge
- Martin van Bentem, dancers
- Cornelis Berkhouwer, Politician, President of the European Parliament (1973-1975)
- Joan Blaeu, cartographer, publisher
- Willem Blaeu, cartographer, publisher
- Marco Borsato, singer
- Anna Louisa Geertruida Bosboom -Toussaint, writer
- Edwin Brienen, Film Director
- André Carrell, comedian
- Rudi Carrell, Showmaster
- Jacqueline Cramer, Minister of the Environment
- Cornelis Drebbel Jacobszoon, inventor, physicist and mechanics
- Willem de Fesch, violinist and composer
- Bastiaan Giling, cyclist
- Nycke Groot, Women's Handball
- Steven de Jongh, cyclist
- Patrick Kos, cyclist
- Silvia Kouwenberg, linguist
- Hendrik Dirk Kruseman van Elten, landscape painter, etcher and lithographer
- Wilma Landskroon, singer, lived in Alkmaar at the time of its greatest successes
- Jan van Scorel, painter
- Tom Six, Film Director
- Emanuel de Witte, painter
- Paul van Zelm, horn player and Professor