Lerma is a Spanish municipality ( municipio ) with 2848 inhabitants (as of January 1, 2013 ) in the south of the province of Burgos in the autonomous community of Castile -Leon. The old town of Lerma is as a cultural ( Bien de Interès Cultural ) recognized in the category Conjunto histórico - artístico.
Lerma is on a hill above the valley of the River Arlanza at an altitude of about 850 meters above sea level. inst nearly 40 km ( driving distance ) south of Burgos. Together with the medieval villages Covarrubias (about 23 kilometers to the east ) and Santo Domingo de Silos ( about 31 kilometers south-east ) Lerma forms the so-called " triangle of Arlanza " ( the Golden Triangle de Arlanza ). The distance to Madrid is about 200 kilometers.
In the 20th century, the population of Lerma was subject to only minor fluctuations.
The surrounding area of Lerma is dominated by agriculture; the city offered the necessary regional services in the areas of trade and commerce. For some time the day and weekend tourism can play a significant role in the economy of the small town.
The hill of Lerma had been used since prehistoric times as a natural fortress hill; from the Roman, Early Medieval or Islamic period but absent textual sources and findings and thus reliable findings. In the Lerma Cañada Burgalesa led past, one used by several already in the Middle Ages drift paths for the large flocks of sheep from the south of Spain; at this time was the medieval town with a large central square and a defensive wall with four gates.
But only by the construction activities of Francisco Gómez de Sandoval y Rojas, Marqués de Denia, Duque de Lerma (1553-1625) was the place in the early 17th century, its present appearance. The " Duke of Lerma " was a grandson of the Jesuit general, Francisco de Borja and a leader of the Counter-Reformation in Spain. He served the Spanish king Philip III. as a minister and was in 1618 appointed cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. From the architect Francisco de Mora (1553-1610), a pupil or imitator Juan de Herrera (1530-1597), the designer and builder of the Escorial, he had at the beginning of the 17th century ducal palace of Lerma and perhaps some ancillary buildings - including the convent of San Blas - build, and the venue became a largely uniform architectural character.
- The Ducal Palace ( Palacio Ducal de Lerma ) was built in the years 1601 to 1617 and is the dominant building of houses encircled by arcades rectangular square. The stylistically the Escorial modeled building now serves as a Parador.
- Right next to the Ducal Palace - and earlier connected by an arcade with him - is the church of the convent of San Blas ( Convento de San Blas ).
- From late medieval period dates the large central square - with almost 7000 m² one of the largest in Spain. He may have been remodeled on the orders of the Duke.
- The Clarissenkonvent ( Monasterio de la Ascension de Nuestro Señor ) was added to the beginning of the 17th century by a daughter of the Duke of Lerma commissioned and completed in 1610.
- Is Plaza Santa Clara between the Clarissenkonvent and the Karmelitinnenkonvent. The open arcades on the north side provide beautiful views of the country.
- The Karmelitinnenkonvent ( Convento de Santa Teresa ) also dates from the early 17th century and in the presence of Philip III. inaugurated in 1617.
- The former monastery church of the Dominican Order (Santo Domingo ) is in the south of the city and has a blown baroque bell tower; she was also completed in 1617. In the former convent buildings now the town hall ( ayuntamiento ) is housed.
- The three-aisled collegiate church ( Collegiate San Pedro ( Lerma ) ) stands opposite the Ducal Palace, but about 300 meters away from this. Its tower mimics the towers of the Ducal Palace. The interior houses a rich equipment.
- The Prison Gate ( Puerta de la Cárcel ) and sparse remains of the former city walls are architectural examples from the late Middle Ages.
- Also from the 14th/15th. Century comes a stone arch bridge over the Río Arlanza.
- Hernando de Lerma (1541 -ca. 1585 )
Lerma is the scene of a play:
- La Burgalesa de Lerma, Author: Lope de Vega ( 1613 )
Lerma has been the setting of two Spanish feature films:
- El Lazarillo de Tormes, directed by César Fernández Ardavin (1959 )
- El segundo poder, directed by José María Forqué (1976 )