Villafranca Montes de Oca
Villafranca Montes de Oca is a municipality on the Camino de Santiago in the province of Burgos, the Spanish autonomous community of Castile -Leon. Its inhabitants live on farming, agriculture and forestry. The population fluctuates seasonally between about 150 inhabitants in the summer and about 30 inhabitants in winter, were officially registered on 1 January 2013 130 inhabitants.
Villafranca is a village road that extends over about a kilometer along the national road N 120. The busy thoroughfare is also the main street ( Calle Mayor ) of the place. Directly behind the village begin the Montes de Oca, last geographical survey before the central Spanish plateau Meseta.
The municipality is crossed from north to south from the Río Oca, an Ebro inflow. Despite the current good water quality, fish and crabs remain disappeared that populated the waters until the late 1970s.
The climate of the place is continental character with relatively cool summer temperatures and cold winters, where snow is not uncommon.
The location on the edge of Montes de Oca allows greater species richness than in the almost exclusively agrarian areas in the direction of Rioja. The trees include oaks, pines, beeches, poplars and elms, the fauna includes, inter alia, from wild boar, partridge, venison and goose, in some protected areas originally received, there are wolves and otters.
The town was founded by the Romans just south of the present village under the name Auca. He became a bishop, according to tradition, the sacred Indalecio, disciple of the apostle James, first bishop was here and suffered martyrdom. Historically demonstrable, is to function as a bishop's seat, she went on to Gamonal 1075, the castle is alesi cal district today.
During the Moorish invasion of the Iberian Peninsula Villafranca was partially destroyed and later rebuilt a little further north and closer to the Rio Oca again. The further development is its location on the Camino between the Bishop Santo Domingo de la Calzada cities and Burgos, and before the Montes de Oca owed. This mountainous forest area was feared by the pilgrims, because it virtually no water sources but wild animals, robbers and gave the opportunity to get lost. Often pilgrims waited until a larger group had found that the Montes de Oca then crossed together. The bad reputation of the area is reflected to this day in a Castilian proverb with which you protested against any form of monetary usury: If you want to steal, go into the Oca Mountains! The city used because even in the 14th century a pilgrim hostel with 36 beds, which had been founded in 1380 by the wife of Henry II. Here, too, reported a of traditional verse of the situation at that time: It should have been a lot of beds, but little dress issue. The members of this ancient pilgrim hostel - Hospital de San Antonio Abad - you can still find near the church. Despite its historical value, it is in a poor state of conservation.
- Jacob's Church (Iglesia de Santiago Apóstol ), late 18th century. The building was erected on the same place where previously had stood the cathedral and another church.
- A former pilgrim hospital ( Hospital de San Antonio Abad ) of 1380th
- Monument to farm workers ( Monumento al Labrador ), on the main road between the municipal offices ( Ayuntamiento ) and church located.
Outside the town:
- Ermita de San Felices, remains of the same monastery from the 10th century, the tradition has it that Diego Porcelos be here been buried, founder of the city of Burgos. Location: one kilometers north of Villafranca, the Camino de Santiago in the direction Espinosa del Camino
- Ermita de Oca, according to tradition, torture square of Saint Indalecio.
- Monument to the Füsilierten the Spanish Civil War ( Monumento dedicado a la memoria de los fusilados de la guerra civil) with the inscription: "No fue su muerte inútil, fue su inútil fusilamiento ". The monument is located on the Santiago after three kilometers towards the monastery of San Juan de Ortega.
- Ermita de Valdefuentes, former monastery and pilgrims' hostel of the Cistercians in the 12th century. The Ermita is the Apse of the former Church of St. Mary Magdalene and only remaining architectural testimony. It is located between the Way and the national road N- 120 towards the monastery of San Juan de Ortega.
- St Anton, on January 17
- Pilgrimage and procession to the Ermita de Oca on the second Sunday in August