Expedition 36

ISS Expedition 36 mission is the designation for the 36 long-term crew of the International Space Station ( ISS). The mission began with the uncoupling of the spaceship Soyuz TMA- 07M from the ISS on 13 May 2013. The end was marked by the uncoupling of Soyuz TMA- 08M on 10 September 2013.

  • 2.1 freighter traffic
  • 2.2 orbital maneuvers
  • 2.3 extravehicular activities 2.3.1 1st exit
  • 2.3.2 2nd & 3rd exit
  • 2.3.3 4th exit
  • 2.3.4 5th exit


  • Pavel Vinogradov ( third space flight), Commander, ( Russia / Roscosmos ) ( Soyuz TMA- 08M )
  • Alexander Alexandrovich Missurkin ( first space flight), flight engineer, ( Russia / Roscosmos ) ( Soyuz TMA- 08M )
  • Christopher John Cassidy ( second space flight), flight engineer, (USA / NASA) ( Soyuz TMA- 08M )

Additionally since May 29, 2013

  • Karen Nyberg Lujean ( second space flight), flight engineer, (USA / NASA) ( Soyuz TMA- 09M )
  • Fyodor Nikolayevich Yurchikhin (4th space flight), flight engineer, ( Russia / Roscosmos ) ( Soyuz TMA- 09M )
  • Luca Parmitano ( first space flight), flight engineer, (Italy / ESA ) ( Soyuz TMA- 09M )

After undocking of Soyuz TMA- 08M with Vinogradov, Missurkin and Cassidy Yurchikhin takes command and forms with Nyberg and Parmitano the initial crew of the ISS Expedition 37

Backup crew

The backup crew of ISS Expedition recruited from the backup crews of the Soyuz shuttle respective spaceships ( see there). If everything is going according to plan, these teams two Soyuz missions and thus two ISS expeditions are then usually later for regular use.

Mission Description

After the return of the spaceship Soyuz TMA- 07M to Earth, the crew worked first threesome for two weeks. On May 28, Fyodor Yurchikhin, Karen Nyberg and Luca Parmitano launched with Soyuz TMA- 09M from Baikonur and coupled already after 5 hours and 39 minutes on the module Rasswjet. During scheduled until September 11, Expedition 36 diverse research projects were in the areas of astronomy, biology, chemistry, earth science, materials science, physics, and technology on the program. In addition to routine maintenance items on life support, communications and energy supply systems 5 outboard stays were completed with extensive work and 3 cargo ships (ATV 4 " Albert Einstein" / June 15 to October 28, Progress M 20M/27 July -28 December. .. HTV Kounotori 4/9 August - 8 September ) received and discharged.

During the first weeks of the coolant circuit of the energy branch 2B was under close observation. Here the coolant control had been replaced a few days earlier. When storing of Soyuz TMA - 07M it came back at a pressure drop, but no leaks were found.

Among the scientific investigations included BASS, UBNT, BCAT -4, Seedling Growth, Coulomb crystal, plasma crystal, matryoshka, microbiome, per K and FASES to the technical trials Fundoscope, Vane Gap 1, SPHERES and the Surface Telerobotic experiment.

As part of BASS ( Burning and Suppression of Solids ) combustion processes and their extinction were studied in solids. A total of 13 experiments were carried out with different materials in a glove box. This should lead to an improvement of fire safety in weightlessness.

In UBNT ( Ultrasound Background Noise Test) of the " noise " was measured in the field of ultrasound. The sound inaudible to humans means a high frequency vibration which can disturb microgravity experiments sensitive.

With BCAT (Binary Alloy Collodial test) are called colloids for many years, which are embedded solid particles investigated in liquids. The goal is finding out the conditions under which anneal the particles and form clumps. These findings, which one wins without the influence of gravity can bring knowledge about the background of such deposits. Meanwhile, working with technology 4th generation. With emulsions, ie mixtures of two normally immiscible liquids is concerned, the experiment FASES (Fundamental and Applied Studies of Emulsion Stability). Here insights about dynamics and stability of emulsions were obtained without the influence of gravity.

For Seedling Growth an automatically controlled mini greenhouse, seedlings of Arabidopsis were in the European Modular Cultivation System, planted, taken at various stages of development and frozen for subsequent studies. In Coulomb or plasma crystal was about investigations of charged or electrically neutral particles whose behavior was recorded under different pressure conditions. Here, crystal-like structures, which could also give information about the formation of planets in young solar systems information form.

In Matryoshka is a studded with radiation detectors doll, the different materials are intended to simulate different internal organs. In this way you can quite figure out exactly the radiation exposure of a person during a space flight in low Earth orbit. Other radiometers are distributed throughout the space station. In microbiome smears of various body parts of a spaceman were made and fixed the samples for further examination at regular intervals. So one wants to get an overview of the colonization of the skin with different microorganisms. In the context of K per a specific diet is adhered to. Purpose is to find out about urine and blood samples as well as computed tomography, the impact has a long-lasting change in diet to maintain bone density and shape. Past studies have shown that bone mass is lost, although built after returning to earth again to its former strength, while maintaining voids remain in the bones that have an impact on stability.

The Fundoscope for tonometry is a new device for the determination of intraocular pressure in zero gravity. In addition, vision tests are performed. In weightlessness many astronauts suffer from flattened eyeballs, a change that also after returning to Earth can still have an impact. As of July comes with optical coherence tomography ( OCT), are used in the light reflections for a three-dimensional image of the inside of the eye, another method of investigation in the context of Ocular Health ( eye health ) are used. Also new are ultrasound scans of the spine, with which changes can be recorded in three dimensions.

In Vane Gap 1 is explored, such as liquids without using an active pump, alone of capillary forces by broad lines, the cross section corresponds to a thin gap, can be transported.

The SPHERES project (Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient Experimental Satellites ) works with programmable, about 20 cm gauging missiles, which individually within the station or can move in formation. Be tried various programs in which an interplay of the three spheres is tested.

With the Surface telerobotics experiment (STE ) is to be examined to what extent a ground-based robotic vehicle out of orbit can be effectively controlled remotely. Normally this happens again and vice versa. A variety of experiments on board the ISS is remotely controlled via special command channels and transmitted or recorded the results on video. When STE is now a real-time control from space was tested for the first time. Actors were doing Christopher Cassidy and K10, one at the Ames Research Center of NASA developed and built vehicle. About telemetry and video Cassidy could watch the execution of his orders. STE is the preparation of missions, where astronauts stay in space and investigate other celestial bodies by means of remote-controlled robot.

Earth Observation was carried out under various experiments, including Crew Earth Observation (CEO), Uragan, Econ, IServ and His. In addition to routine maintenance of life -support systems, computer or communications technology, the TVIS treadmill was dismantled in the Russian segment and replaced by a newer model BD-2, which had previously arrived with the cargo ship Progress M - 19M. In the US-based part of the station, a sports equipment has been modernized: ARED (Advanced Resistive Exercise Device), a type of strength training installation that uses vacuum cylinders instead of weights.

Freighter traffic

On June 11, put the loaded waste freighter Progress M - 19M on the rear of the station. He remained for further investigation until June 19 in an Earth orbit and was then taken to burn up over the Pacific. During the coupling in April they had switched to manual control from inside the station, since the arm of a required for navigation radar antenna was not expanded. When departing the images transmitted by the transporter of the coupling socket of the station were taken under the microscope to make sure that no damage had arisen. Curiously, the antenna arm snapped off at disconnection.

On June 15, the Automated Transfer Vehicle, launched 10 days before ATV docked 4 " Albert Einstein" at the rear station. Again, they had examined more thoroughly than usual before the final phase of the rendezvous with a camera and laser the functionality of the corresponding navigation systems. The docking happened with the highest precision, the spur came without contact with the cone directly into the target hole.

After establishing a firm connection to the opening of the hatches delayed somewhat because you contamination with mold spores as feared ATV 3. The crew was ordered to rub certain cargo bags with disinfectant as soon as possible.

Located approximately 3.44 tons fuel for orbit raising maneuver of the ISS with ATV engines and to refill the ISS tanks 570 kg of water, 66 kg of air and 33 kg of oxygen were on board the freighter. The so-called dry cargo consisted of about 1,400 different items with a total weight of 2.5 tons. These include clothing, food, experimental facilities and materials and tools. A specially - Italian culinary cargo consisted of lasagna and tiramisu.

On July 25, Progress M - 18M was disconnected from the Pirs module and burned up in the following night, largely in dense layers of the atmosphere. With the successor, Progress -M 20M, which started on the evening of 27 July and docked at night the next day after about 6 hours of flight time, came alongside fuels, water, food, consumer goods and equipment and a repair kit for the space suit from Luca Parmitano to the station.

On August 3 Kounotori launched 4 ( HTV ) by the Japanese Tangashima from the International Space Station. The ship navigated on August 9, in the immediate vicinity of the station and was coupled by manipulator arm at nadir port of Harmony module. HTV 4 transported a total of about 5.4 tons of material to the ISS, including accessories to NASA and JAXA facilities, food, water, supplies, Experimentiergut, a small robot named Kirobo and the four small satellites Pico Dragon, Ardusat 1, Ardusat X and TechEdSat 3 non-pressurized cargo included a Energieumschalteinheit, a power and data distribution for a rotating unit for tracking the large solar panels as well as the experimental complex Space test Program - Houston 4 with this are scientific and technical research on atmospheric physics, temperature control, radiation measurement, data processing and employed for the observation of phenomena caused by lightning.

Orbital maneuvers

On June 19, two engines of the coupled at the rear of the station freighter ATV 4 were fired for 6 minutes and 47 seconds, reaching an increase to about 404 x 427 km altitude. This was a test run for zukünftigere wider web increases.

On July 10, another maneuver with the engines of ATV 4 was made. In the course of the ten-minute period, the drive speed of the complex was increased to 1.45 m / s, after which the web height increases by 2.5 km.

Extravehicular activities

First exit

During the first exit on 24 June ( Yurchikhin / Misurkin ) a flow control valve in the cooling system of the module Zarya was exchanged, a test is performed at the course - approach system, the experiment indicator installed, clamps for securing the data and power cables attached, installed several handrails and parts of the experiments Foton - gamma and Wuinosliwost recovered. The withdrawal began at 13:32 UTC clock and lasted 6 hours and 34 minutes.

2nd & 3rd exit

The exits two and three on 9 and July 16 ( Cassidy / Parmitano ) had the laying of power and network cables to the future transshipment of Russian laboratory module Nauka (pronounced Na -u- ka ) and jumper cables to the grid element Z1, the recovery of samples of the experiments MISSE (Materials ISS experiment) and ORME (Optical Reflector materials experiment), the release of insulation material of a switching unit and minor works, such as the installation of cameras or footholds to new future locations to content.

The first of these two exits went smoothly, with Parmitano the first Italian Besides vehicular activity carried out at all. The second exit had to be terminated prematurely because had accumulated a greater amount of water in Parmitanos helmet. First, a leak was suspected in drinking water container, but the crowd grew even after Parmitano had emptied the drinking water supply. As the water penetrated into his eyes and ears, as well as in his nose, it was decided to cease the work immediately. Parmitano immediately went into the airlock while Cassidy yet completed cleanup. Parmitano was due to the water that collected in zero gravity around his head, neither see, nor hear, until he could be removed in the space station of the helmet.

4th exit

On August 16, Fyodor Yurchikhin and Alexander Misurkin led by the fourth exit, in the course of two power cable and an Ethernet cable along the Zarya module and two connection panels were mounted on Poisk. Furthermore, an experimental set for the study Wuinosliwost has been installed, the conditions of the open space will be exposed to the different materials for a long time.

For the work which lasted for a total of 7 hours and 29 minutes, the Strela crane arm number 1 was used and extended up to 14 meters. At the end of Fyodor Yurchikhin was promoted along with cable drum to the starting point. A little later, Alexander Misurkin followed the boom along, where he installed fixtures for guiding the cable on the outside skin of Zarya.

5 exit

The duties of the fifth exit ( Yurchikhin / Misurkin ), which took place on August 22, included the disassembly of a complex laser communication unit, the inspection of multiple antennas of the approach system and the installation of a workstation positioned on the November two cameras of the system UrtheCast be.